OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
Gender Sensitivity And Discrimination Against Women Under Statute And Common Law In Nigeria
Mosunmola Oluwatoyin Imasogie a
a Faculty of Law, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 11-18, 2010.
Abstract: The status of women all over the world is a cause for grave concern. Women in all societies experience various forms of discrimination and oppression. Women are singled out for one form of oppression or the other. In all societies men are superior to women. The diversity of women’s needs and interests vary from basic survival to aspirations of power and prestige. These diversities hinder the collective participation of women in public life. In spite of the few progress made towards the emancipation of women, power remains a male prerogative, with men retaining economic, political and religious control. Women’s space is restricted to the spheres of reproduction and household tasks. The public space is still limited to men and a few elite women. This paper examines gender sensitivity and discrimination against women under statute and common law. This paper traces the oppression of women under both common law and statutes. The paper would highlight various discrimination Nigerian women are subjected to including harmful cultural practices against women.
In Nigeria women suffer a number of discrimination even under statutes. A lot of discriminatory laws still abound in our statute books – criminal law, law of evidence, Police Act, Labor Law, Marriage Act, Penal Code, Wills law, Inheritance Law, Citizenship, Civil Service Rules and Regulations and under the Constitution. Nigeria ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) without any form of reservation. The country is therefore not expected to have any discriminatory law in her statute book. The paper aims to hold Nigeria accountable to her obligations under International Human Rights Law.
Keywords: Common law and statute, Discrimination, Gender equality, Human rights,
PRESS FREEDOM, A SINE QUA NON FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE?
Olusegun Onakoya a
a Department of Private and Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 19-28, 2010.
Abstract: Within the context of the frequency of its occurrence in recent times, it is not out of place to observe that the expression “good governance” is beginning to take on a conceptual character. Although it could defy a straightforward meaning, like the proverbial elephant however, it is easy to identify. Guobadia, D.A (2000). The Legislature and good governance under the 1999 Constitution, 43. Concepts have their ways of emerging in a people’s consciousness and, taken as one, the notion of good governance in contemporary Nigeria has, no doubt been conditioned by the vagaries and vicissitudes of our national life. The geo-political entity called ‘Nigeria’ has over the years, precisely since the nation’s independence been groping for panacea to the socio-economic problems facing her. The successive governments for the past 50 years since Nigeria’s independence have, in their attempt to bring succour to their subjects, appears to have plunged the nation into abyss of poverty and despondency. This unpleasant situation Nigeria has found herself among the comity of nations is a major concern, not only for the government but also the governed who bear the brunt of the consequences of the action or inaction of the former. In 1960, Nigeria gained independence with pomp and pageantry, great hope and expectations which ushered her into the 1st Republic.
Keywords: Human resources, Press freedom, governance, Transparency.
Measuring human poverty in India
An inter state analysis
Sharanjit Singh Dhillo a, Prabhjot Kaur b
a, b Punjab School of Economics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 29-40, 2010.
Abstract: Poverty has many dimensions and as such difficult to define in a simple way. Poverty may be defined as the inability of a person to get the minimum needs fulfilled with respect to consumption for leading a simple and healthy life. These minimum needs include food, clothing, housing, education and basic health requirements. It is the individual who suffers being poor. In the light of this paper examines the three types of deprivations viz longevity, knowledge and economic. Based on these deprivations, human poverty index (HPI) has been constructed for different Indian states. Paper concludes that states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh are the worst performing states in respect of these deprivations and HPI. Overtime from 1991 and 2005 not much change has been occurred in their position rather the gap between the best performing (with lesser deprivations) states like Kerala, Punjab, Gujarat, Haryana and Maharashtra and the worst performing states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa has widened on the basis of these deprivations. The worst performing states have higher proportion of deprived people in term of these deprivations. In spite of state intervention through many pro poor policies the worst performing states are not showing any signs of reduction in the proportion of people having either of these deprivations. It seems that the benefits of these policies are not reaching the poor due to inefficient administration and high levels of corruption prevailing in these states.
Keywords: Deprivation, Education, Human Development, Human Poverty, Poverty.
Third Generation Human Rights And
The Good Governance
Mohammad Abdul Hannan a
a Department of Law & Justice, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 41-51, 2010.
Abstract: Human rights are understood as rights which belong to any individual as a consequence of being human, independently of acts of law. Human rights alone do not ensure effective enjoyment of human rights. They must be included in a network of institutions which are guided by the same philosophy. Human rights of the third generation are highly complex composite rights like the right to development, the right to peace, and the right to a clean environment. None of these rights has solid legal foundations in a legal instrument of worldwide applicability. It is certainly say that, there will be many attempts in the future to use unorthodox strategies with a view to enforcing rights which are not capable of being enforced in the country of origin. It is, of course, much easier to guarantee human rights if the basic societal framework corresponds fully to the requirements of democracy and the rule of law.
Keywords: African commission, Extra legal jurisdiction, Human rights, Peace.
Live Long and Prosper without Economic Growth? Possibilities in Developing Countries
Chiung Ting Chang a
a International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development,
Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 51-60, 2010.
Abstract: The discussion of aiming at zero economic growth has re-emerged in late 2000s after the financial crisis coinciding with environmental concerns. Here we see a parallel with the concept of zero economic growth in 1970s, i.e., steady-state economy in Herman E. Daly’s word. The oil crisis stimulated some scientists to rediscover and to rethink the limit of growth, especially towards the way it had turned out in the modern economy. Why the 1970s movement did not succeed in shifting the paradigm? What makes the paradigm shift more likely to occur nowadays? This paper makes an attempt to answer the question from the perspective of neo-institutionalism. Besides, the discussion about steady-state economy or prosperity without growth mostly focuses on developed countries. The possibility of its occurrence in developing countries is hardly addressed. Here I would like to shift the focus to the potentials of developing countries to take this route. First, low income countries which score high in specific development indicators are identified. Data of GDP per capita, life expectancy at birth, and adult literacy rate are taken from Human Development Index year 2007. Additionally, the index of life satisfaction (year 2006) is employed. Countries which score low in life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rate, or life satisfaction but with relatively higher level of GDP per capita are selected for comparing with the former. Document analysis and open-ended interviews are employed in order to identify possible factors that lead to the good performance of the aforementioned low income counties. Furthermore, factor analysis is conducted in order to investigate the aggregated development factors. The findings are to be compared with elements identified in the above low income but well performed countries and with aforementioned factors of paradigm shift. The purpose is to identify the underlying factors for development. This paper concludes with implications for development policies and development studies for the developing world.
Keywords: Development policy, Factor analysis, Neo-institutionalism, Steady-state economy
Poverty And Teenage Pregnancy: The Dynamics In Developing Countries
Yetunde F. Oke a
a LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 63-66, 2010.
Abstract: Poverty has dual dynamics in teenage pregnancy. Being a determinant as well as a consequence of teenage pregnancy especially in developing countries, many of the individual and environmental risk factors that are determinants of teenage pregnancy may be tied into experiences of poverty. The environment that poverty creates, lack of resources and support, the resulting perceptions of limited educational and financial opportunities may reduce the cost of teen pregnancy and motherhood for adolescent females. Having a child may be perceived as the only way to bring meaning into the adolescent’s life.
Keywords: Legal adulthood, Poverty, Teenage pregnancy, Socio economic status,
cassava production and poverty eradication among crop farmers in ondo state, nigeria
E.O. Fakoyaa, T.O.A. Banmekeb, O.R. Ashimolowob, O.E. Fapojuwob
aUniversity of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
bUniversity of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 69-72, 2010.
Abstract: Poverty is a condition in which one cannot generate sufficient income required to secure minimum standard of living or a sustainable life. Various government administrations have stressed the need for self employment through engaging in agriculture which is a veritable tool for poverty eradication. This study was carried out in Ondo State, Nigeria to assess how cassava production can assist in the eradication of poverty among crop farmers. A total of 70 respondents were sampled and information was elicited from them through the use of interview schedules. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used in analyzing the data. The study shows that majority (71.43%) of the respondents were males and married, with family sizes of between 6-10 persons (55.71%). Most of them (77.14%) had formal education. Results from the study also showed that the knowledge of cassava production is rife among the farmers. Majority of them (71.43%) had farming experience of between 7-12 years. The study revealed that 65.71% realized between N10,000-N20,00 monthly ($67-134). Constraints such as lack of adequate fund and pest infestation are the prominent constraints faced by the farmers. Multiple regression analysis shows an R2 value of 0.69. The study therefore recommends that efforts be employed to improve the production of cassava and extension services be made accessible to farmers since cassava production is a veritable tool in alleviating poverty.
Keywords: Cassava production, crop farmer, poverty eradication
Environmental protection vis-à-vis judicial activism
Geetika Walia a, Prashish Kanwar a, b
a Rajiv Gandhi National University Of Law, Mohindra Kothi, Patiala, Punjab, India.
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 73-79, 2010.
Abstract: The black ebony staves of the judiciary which has thumped time and again for protection of man miniature against excruciating blows of evil is known on the aspiration for protecting the environment. The judiciary is having a coherent vision on environmental protection. However the problem of law making and amending is really onerous in this area. As there are certain things like industrialization, urbanization, cultural and moral values of humanity that hamper or create a razzmatazz of legal norms which are really hard to be deciphered out. In today’s emerging jurisprudence, environmental rights incorporates of collective rights are described as ‘third generation’ rights. The “first generation rights” are generally political rights while “second generation” rights are called socioeconomic rights as found in the international convert on economic, social & cultural rights . There is a prominent saying “The times have changed and you must too unless the times won’t forgive you” so according to the changing trends of the society from time to time, law also has to evolve accordingly. Earlier, there were many human activists who worked for freeing the society from the existing problems. But in the fast moving world of today, where a person hardly finds time off for his family and close ones, it is a disappointing fact that there is no one to look after the matters of public importance. Hence, fields like Environmental protection go unnoticed. For this PIL has emerged as a Midas touch and is proving to be very effective. However the role of the judiciary is really important as the role of mitochondria of a living human cell. Had the judiciary turned the deaf ear towards environmental problems it could not be in any way came to celluloid. One significant fact to support the sensibility of the judiciary is the case of Subhash Kumar vs. State of Bihar  where in personal grudges of two parties the judiciary put life in the cold letters of the constitution i.e. the environmental protection which previously was a fundamental duty under article 51(A) also came as a fundamental right under article 21 of the constitution of India. No matter how criticized it is, no matter how unidentified it is but one thing to which everyone takes leave to doubt is the massive contribution to the welfare of the environment.
Keywords: Environment, Justice, Protection, Judicial
The Impact of Armed Conflict on Women: Perspectives from Nigerian Women
Oluwakemi Alawemo a , Jonathan Muterera b
a Institute of Peace and Conflict, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nigeria.
b School of Business, Economics, and Entrepreneurship, American University, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 82-88, 2010.
Abstract: Many countries in sub-Saharan region in Africa have been plagued with ethnic and religious conflicts. Nigeria has not been immune to such conflicts. The country has and continues to witness high levels of ethnic and anti-state violence. Ever since independence from Britain in 1960 the African nation of Nigeria has been torn apart by wars, violence and ethnic conflicts. This paper centers on the effect of such conflicts on Nigerian women with a focus on the conflict in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State. The city has continually been rocked by brutal and relentless riots in 1994, 2001, 2008 and most recently in January 2010. These conflicts have brought about extensive destruction of lives and properties. Most significantly, the conflicts have brought about gross human rights violations perpetrated against civilian populations, particularly women and children who apparently make up the most vulnerable group.
Considerable work has been done regarding women and armed conflicts. Much of this work has been done by institutions concerned with human rights violations, particularly violations against women. Unfortunately, much of this work has focused on sexual violence against women and has largely ignored other important aspects of violations against women.
The purpose of this paper is to consider and highlight a range of ways in which women are affected by armed conflicts (in addition to sexual violence). Using responses from interviews conducted with women who have experienced the most recent conflict in the capital city of Jos in Nigeria, we argue that there is a wide range of ways in which women are affected by armed conflict. For example, armed conflict exacerbates inequalities. These inequalities continue even after the conflicts cease. Our findings show that women experience economic hardships during and after conflict. Furthermore, women are excluded from peace building initiatives that take place during and after armed conflict.
Keywords: Armed conflicts, ethnic conflicts, human rights violations, religious conflicts, and women’s rights.
Food insecurity and vulnerability in rural Burkina Faso: an approach using a stereotype logistic regression model
Tebila Nakelse a, André Ouedraogo b
a, b Sub Regional Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Volume 02, Issue 88-97, 2010.
Abstract: The regularity of the food crises in the countries of the Sahel challenges more one on the need for looking further into the studies on the food risk of insecurity. This study thus proposes to study the food vulnerability of the rural populations in Burkina Faso. This not only in terms of consumption of energy as suggested by Ouedraogo et al. (2007), but in terms of risk of a household to know the phenomenon being given its socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The study use dated from the permanent agricultural survey of 2006 conducted in rural areas by the Directorate of Foresight, Foods and Agricultural Statistics of Burkina Faso. Using the approach of the World Food Programme, three levels of vulnerability were built on the basis of total dietary energy available of the rural households. The stereotype logistic regression model proposed by Anderson (1984) allowed the estimate of the food risk of insecurity and the identification of its explanatory factors. It arises from the estimates that the size of the farm and the activities of diversification are the key variables of the food vulnerability of the households. In a specific way the size of the farm contributes to reduce by 33 percent the risk of extreme vulnerability of the rural households. The results challenge the authorities on the need for improving the agricultural outputs but also to encourage the mechanisms of solidarity as well as the activities of diversification such as gardening, handicraft and the gathering.
Keywords: Food vulnerability, Food insecurity, stereotype logistic regression model
THE RIGHT TO LIFE AND THE RIGHT TO HEALTH : ANY NEXUS?
A.K.A Kolawole a
a Department of Private Law,
a Faculty Of Law, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 05, Pg. 95-106, 2010.