OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
A case study of human development observing islamic standards in iranian society: wemon’s progress in legal professional careers
Seyed Reza Eftekhari a
a Islamic Azad University, Gonabad Branch, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 11-15, 2010.
Abstract: The pattern of human development in women’s affairs in a religious and revolutionary society such as Iran can be read as a model based on Islamic standards which may be considered restrictive by some. Legal affairs, both in legislative area and in legal educations and careers are good examples of this participation in a developing country. Women occupy an increasing number of job opportunities as judges, lawyers, advocates, and attorneys and a great percent of university students rush for legal educations. In this essay, we do not aim to speak merely by numbers and graphs, but to show that how the Islamic society can extend the field for women’s development and reconcile the value-driven public view with the social necessities. In this paper, based on a research program about HD in Iran, in addition to the documentary official statistics and social surveys, there will be an analysis regarding the qualitative growth of women’s conditions and the effect of their presence in legal areas on development at a large scale, considering three aspects of a) the effect on legislative power and parliamentary movements regarding the enactment of laws discussing women’s civil and social rights; b) a collectively flow toward institutionalization of women’s rights and for conceptualizing related rules; and c) different attempts with the purpose of promoting educational standards for women in contesting career fields.
Keywords: Human Development, Women, Legal Affairs, Iranian Society.
The Innovation Economics for Sustainable Development: the Ukrainian Case
Elena Stepanova a
a Department of Environmental Protection, Donetsk National Technical University, Ukraine.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 16-24, 2010.
Abstract: Despite declared intention to implement the sustainable development principles, there is growing evidence that Ukraine doesn’t achieve a good progress in economic, human and social policies. One of the main reasons of this is extremely low level of the innovation field development.
This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities of Ukrainian innovation economics. They are examined in comparison with the experiences of EU countries and non-EU country (Russia). The study focuses on the 3 I’s (institutions, investments, information) and the 3 C’s (creativity, communication, cooperation). This phraseology illustrates essential infrastructural elements and social conditions of the Innovation Economics. It covers two main aspects of the foundation of the Innovation Economics of Ukraine: the reasons, which negatively influence scales and speeds of the innovation processes, and transformations, needed for the innovation scenario realization.
The study highlights that the conditions, which are required for the foundation of the innovation economics, to be exact: the liberty of creation, economics liberty, high educational level, high level of scientific researches, of social capital and competitive industry of innovations, – are absent in Ukraine. The analysis shows that important differences exist in the national approaches of foundation and development of innovation economics in the EU and non-EU countries examined. It is also clear that the non-EU countries (Ukraine and Russia) face many common problems.
The results show some transformations in the trends in innovation level of Ukrainian economics, which is known as one of the key conditions of the sustainable development: development of the human resources, informational and communication infrastructure, development of the network cooperation on the national and global levels, development of the partnership among the government, science and business, optimization of the direct finance regulation system and of the stimulus for the innovation activity.
Keywords: Economic Transformation, Innovation Infrastructure, Institutional Conditions, Sustainability.
Living Better in a Better World:
Development and Sustainability in the Ecosystemic Model of Culture
André Francisco Pilon a
a School of Public Health, University of São Paulo
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 25-38, 2010.
Abstract: Problems of difficult settlement or solution in the contemporary world cannot be solved by segmented academic formats, market-place interests and mass-media headlines; instead of dealing with “taken for granted issues” (the apparent “bubbles” in the surface), public policies, research and teaching programmes should detect the issues and work with them deep inside the “boiling pot”. The conceptual direction and the legitimacy of development strategies should be examined in view of a comprehensive framework, not surrendering to specialisation and fragmentation, but promoting a multi-level approach. The present crisis breaks through the core of different societal institutions – education, justice, governance – and reflects a disordering of thought, perceptions and values, embedded into the prevailing power-driven ethos and anomic individualism, which diverts human concern into technological invention, fragmented business embedded scientific advancement and unlimited material consumption and production. Human-induced environmental change imposes a reconfiguration of state control and political authority, in which power is shared on ethical grounds, in a transnational basis. Policy discussions and policymaking require a comprehensive ecosystemic approach embedded into the cultural, social, political and economical institutions (more critical than individual motives and morals). Changing the dominant perspective of powerful political and economic actors, in view of new paradigms of growth, power, wealth, work and freedom, requires a comprehensive framework for problem solving, encompassing the dynamic and complex configurations intertwining, as donors and recipients, four dimensions of being-in-the-world: intimate (subject’s cognitive and affective processes), interactive (groups’ mutual support and values), social (political, economical and cultural systems) and biophysical (biological endowment, natural and man-made environments). The process of change should strengthen the connections and seal the ruptures between the different dimensions, enhancing their mutual support and dynamic equilibrium, as they combine to induce the events (deficits and assets), cope with consequences (desired or undesired) and contribute for change (diagnosis and prognosis).
Keywords: Education, Economics, Environment, Culture, Health, Politics.
Evaluation of youths participation in development
A case of odidi – forcardos gaslink pipeline project of shell petroleum Development Company Nigeria limited
Emma Ifeanyi Ogueri a,b
a Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
b Fresh Impact Rural Development Initiative, Federal Housing Estate, Woji, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 39-47, 2010.
Abstract: The Shell Petroleum Development Company is a multinational corporation operating in Nigeria. The volume of its activities is directly related to the number of communities and its exposures in the Niger Delta. Its operational bases are Warri (Delta State) and Port Harcourt (Rivers State). SPDC was expanding her gas production activities through Odidi-Forcados gaslink pipeline project. The Front End Engineering Design (FEED) of the gas-link project had a corresponding Proactive Stakeholders’ Participation strategy designed and anchored by the Head, Sustainable Community Development unit of the project. The project execution strategy was modeled to encourage community participation, especially the youths in order to curtail restiveness that was high during the period and ensured timely delivery of the project according to schedule. The community development objectives were to develop a model that ensured full community participation, reduction of incidences of down time especially due to youths’ activities and to encourage sustainable local governance structure. Strategies adopted focused on ensuring youths participation in capacity building, trainings, enlightenments, workshops, employments, projects execution, monitoring and close supervision. It was targeted to curtailing the restiveness of the Niger Delta youths thereby affecting project execution plan. Results showed timely completion of gaslink pipeline and CD projects, community based organizations empowerment, cost effectiveness, joint M & E and appreciations by affected communities. A newly developed model of Sustainability, “AFOD” was tested and proven. Average income increased. Above all youths’ restiveness was curtailed. It was recommended that the model should be replicated to address the issue of restiveness in the Niger Delta. Community participation (especially the youths) should be made a key deliverable of all oil and gas projects. It was concluded that government should develop local content policy for youths’ participation in projects that affect means of livelihood of communities.
Keywords: Odidi – Forcados gaslink pipeline project, high level of unemployment among youths, Most of the youths were engaged working directly or indirectly, Security sensitivities and youth restiveness
Sustainable Microfinance Institutions for Poverty Reduction: Malaysian Experience
Adesina-Uthman Ganiyat Adejoke a
a Faculty Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 48-58, 2010.
Abstract: The Microfinance industry has been identified as a developmental tool in the 21st century Worldwide to assist “unbankable” members of the society in poverty reduction. This has called for serious attention from market operators including investors and borrowers both local and international, policy-makers and the academia. Research has shown that Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in Asian countries are performing better than MFIs from Easter Europe, yet Malaysian Microfinance institutions are not big participants in this respect. This paper in the light of the above, examines the sustainability of MFIs in Malaysia. Analyzing the current trends and empirical researches on sustainable financing to the Microfinance industry, it discusses especially, the Morgan Stanley arranged transaction for MFIs, a way of integrating MFIs into the mainstream capital market. Then it examines the source of financing in Malaysian MFIs using secondary data documentation from journals and articles. It was observed that Malaysian MFIs are not self sufficient. They depend heavily on government grants, donors, local financing and savings from members. Albeit, it was observed that cases of hard-core poor and incidence of poverty decreased as at 2004. It concludes with recommendations for the policy-makers and players in this industry in Malaysia that could assist them in positioning the country as an international Hub for Microfinance Industry.
Keyword: Micro credit, Outreach, Sustainability, Un-bankable.
Environmental Impact Assessment of Civil Engineering Infrastructure Development Projects
W. K. Kupolati a
a Department of Civil Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 59-67, 2010.
Abstract: The study involved environmental impact assessment of upgrading of existing flow station dealing with different civil engineering works such as road network, housing, water supply, to name a few. Data was collected from Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) Port Harcourt, Nigerian Meteorological Department (NMD), Lagos, Rivers State Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (RSMENR), Port Harcourt, Ahoada West Local Government Area (AWLGA), Akinima, Rivers State and the Internet. Data collected was used to get an overview of the existing Environment. Relevant test of existing water, soil, noise and air samples were carried out. Comparisons were made with results of the test carried out and data of the area collected. Formal and informal interviews were also carried out with some of the inhabitants of the area. All these were done with the aim of assessing the impact the infrastructure had on the environment, and projection of the likely impact of the upgrading exercise. The study revealed that civil engineering infrastructure development projects impacted greatly on the environment especially in areas of noise pollution, water pollution, decrease in size of available land, etcetera. Based on the findings, recommendations were made for the elimination of the negative effects in some cases; and for amelioration of the effects in situations where it will be impossible to completely eradicate such effects.
Keywords: Environmental impact assessment, flow station, environmental pollution, civil engineering infrastructure, impact mitigation
Managing human resource policy for sustainability of developing country
Amrita Batchuluun a, Joung Yol Lin b , Tain-Fung Wu c
b College of Management, Asia University, Taiwan.
c Department of Business Administration, Asia University, Taiwan.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 68-76, 2010.
Abstract: The paper aims to investigate human resource policy and system within one of the developing Asian countries, Mongolia, how to manage and mobilize it toward to sustainable development of the country. Nowadays Mongolian economy very much affected by agriculture and mining. Indeed, micro entrepreneurs and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play increasingly an important role on balanced development of the regions, creation of new jobs and seedbeds for innovation. Study raises a question how to ensure an efficient human resource policy that will impact in the long run nevertheless to prevent from poverty and enhance the effectiveness of growth strategy of the country. Findings indicate that there are weak human resource strategies that influenced by inconsistency of professional and vocational trainings and a weak educational system. It needs more creative and innovative work in order to reach community in different regions, unleash their capacities and recognize their contribution to national sustainable development. Thus a paper identify and analyze the main difficulties while examines human resource system, current legal framework, communication and relationship between programs and projects implemented by government agencies and international organizations furthermore tries to find the best solution. The paper provides a unique platform for policymakers to mobilize human resource system that enables to respond to market demand.
Keywords: Human resource policy, Mobilization, Sustainable development, Mongolia
“Entrenched Customs Die Hard..”
Can Harmful Traditional Practices Be Justified By Cultural Relativism Of Human Rights?
Case Study Of FGM
Aleksandra Nędzi a
a Center for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Studies, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 78-86, 2010.
Abstract: In my paper I would like to examine views of universalists and cultural relativists on the issue of human rights, in order to find out whether human rights are strictly a Western idea – whether they were present in all cultures or created in the Western culture in the eighteenth century. If they in fact were created in the Western civilization, would that mean they do not apply to certain parts of the globe? If so, are some people to enjoy smaller scope of rights than others?
I will relate it to legitimacy of controversial traditional practices, in specific Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), which is going to be used as a case study.
Keywords: Dignity, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), Human Rights, Universal standards
Highway Traffic Noise Level in Developing Nations: A Case Study of University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
W. K. Kupolati a, A. O. Coker b, J. E. Ogunbor c
a Department of Civil Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa.
b Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 87-94, 2010.
Abstract: The study dealt with the determination of highway traffic noise levels in the main campus of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Noise measurements were obtained with the TECPEL Model 331 Data Logger portable sound level meter, set to compute sound level distributions on a second-by-second basis. The temperatures were measured by outside weather thermometer, while the local traffic counts were done manually. In all, ten (10) locations were considered for study while data were collected between 7.20 – 16.20 Hours daily and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) road traffic noise pollution standard. The road noise levels at the zones ranges from 53.8 and 65.2 decibels [dB (A)]. These were predominantly attributable to motor vehicular traffic. The temperature varied from 24 degrees C to 32 degrees C, and the total traffic count in the selected locations was 74,829 for the period of the survey. The permissible level for road traffic noise is 50 – 55 dB (A) by WHO standard. In all the surveyed locations in the campus, the noise level surpassed the permissible limit except at Barth Road/Technology Drive ‘T’ junction [53.8dB (A)] and U.I./Poly gate [53.9dB (A)] that fell in the range of WHO permissible limit. In addition, the mean noise level in the University of Ibadan campus was 59.2 dB (A); this is also above the prescribed standard. The study showed that the observed departure of the noise levels from the standard specified by WHO in the campus may cause health problems in the area under study. Also the established baseline noise levels at selected locations in the University can be re-assessed at regular intervals for appropriate monitoring. The findings may require an urgent need by the institution to put in place immediate regulatory measures to minimize and control the high road traffic noise.
Keywords: Highway traffic noise, sound level meter, noise pollution standards, monitoring, health problems
Democracy and development in uganda
Kibuuka Wassaaka Ambrose a
Kampala City Traders’ Association (KACITA), Uganda.
Volume 02, Issue 04, Pg. 95-104, 2010.
Abstract: The topic of Presentation, is solicited and linked by the presenter, to a variety of suggested development topics, which bear profound concern and relevance to the concept of holistic human development, based on un diluted Democratic Governance. Holistic Development in general, as duly embracing the social and economic growth, in relation to developing countries, such as Uganda, bears a significant brotherhood, as well impacting relationship to undiluted democracy, where it is taken and emphasized as an inevitable basis and root of holistic human development.
The selected topic of Democracy and Development significantly connote as well implies that democracy, in an un diluted form, is an inevitable basis of holistic human corporate development and that such development, should be rooted in the attributes of good, accountable, transparent, as well selfless positive democratic governance of a people.
It is, therefore, to be noted that the functional practice and presence of democracy, or the profound lack of it, or presence of the same, in diluted unconventional forms and content, in a developing country, such as Uganda, in the defined aspects of human corporate, political, social and even cultural endeavors, does also add up to, as well imply a negative reversal of that development, whatever it may be.
Keywords: Democracy, Development, Economic stability, Historical.