Volume 02 Issue 03

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

The Instability Of Food Security: Is It Another Context For Emerging Social Conflicts?
Seyed Reza Eftekharia, Seyed Masoud Jalilianb
aIslamic Azad University of Gonabad, Iran.
bMeead Sharq Institute for Legal and International Studies, Mashad, Iran. 

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 11-15, 2010.

Abstract: In this article, we argue that the three factors of, a) ineffectiveness of legal systems, b) the intervening of the national states in producer-consumer relationships, and, c) global approaches mixed with rule making policies of international institutes, would create vulnerable food conditions and cause a harsh and new form of social conflict. As a matter of fact, when we consider the food security as a political, and even a legal issue, we would naturally find both the national states and the global community responsible for neglecting the most tormenting form of social conflict. We are going to say that the food insecurity in the form of a crisis would create many new conflict zones across the globe. Given to the fact that legal systems and the international organizations are trying to remove the conflicts from the surface, viewing these conflicts from a different perspective may help dealing with the pfoblem.

Keywords: Food Insecurity, Global Economic, Poverty, Social Conflicts. 

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Environmental Issues And Nigeria’s Niger Delta Crisis
 Stephen Maduka Ogbodo a 
a Civil Power Africa, Ketu, Lagos, Nigeria 

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 16-23, 2010.

Abstract: The contemporary history of Nigeria is confronted with issues arising from the crisis in the Niger Delta region.  These issues are highlighted by the conditions of abject poverty under which the  inhabitants of the region live. Nigeria is bound to deal with environment in which to pursue its goals of economic and social development. The processes for the production of petroleum and gas from the Niger Delta, and the political and environmental conditions put in place by both the state laws and multinational oil companies, in which the wealth of the Niger Delta is tapped and distributed, determine the contemporary history of instability in the Niger Delta and eventually, the history of the entire nation of Nigeria. In summation, the present circumstances of the Niger Delta include; neglect by federal, state and local governments, destruction of natural resources by oil extraction, gas flaring and pollution, and other perceived social and political injustice. Thus, the population left in abject poverty cannot, but remain restive and openly violent on every occasion.

Keywords: Civil society, Global peace, Governance Sustainability

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 Sustainable development and environmental challenges
Akbar Valadbigi a, Shahab Ghobadi b
  a  State University of Yerevan, Armenia.
 b Kurdistan State University, Iran.

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 24-31, 2010.

Abstract: Nowadays environmental destruction directly affects the economic process of world countries. Erosion, ozone layer’s becoming thin, pollution, increasing the number of dangerous flooding due to the destruction of settlements and climate changes altogether have a bad effect on people’s lives.

While reserving environment and natural resources is among the most important human challenges in the turn of the new century, the necessity of improving the level of life standards in the developing countries still keeps its importance.

Environmental sustainability and development are two essential elements in development planning, and in order to enjoy sustainable development we should firm industrial development based on the concept of environmental sustainability. Some parts of environmental consequences and damages are the results of unclear regulations and their lack of administrative guarantee, so rereading legal considerations and making arrangement in this area seem to be necessary. 

The process of globalization due to the lack of preparing essential provisions for compensating the results of its avarice at last leads to destroying environment and earth’s natural resources and increasing poverty under the yoke of the world capitalism.

In this article, Iran’s environmental challenges with respect to the concept of development and specially ” sustainable development” have been discussed.

Keywords: Environment, Sustainable development, Developmental punishment, Globalization

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Role of Competencies in Human Resource Management 
A Study in Indian Organizations
P. Anitha Kumari a, V. Sita b
 a, b University of  Hyderabad, India.

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 32-34, 2010.

Abstract: Contemporary organizations are essentially people driven. Termed as human resources in HR parlance, the contribution of people towards success is established. Organizational environment is characterized by competition and performance, thus making traditional human resource practices in managing people redundant. Creating new forms of competitive advantage has thus become a major area of concern for organizations. It gets all the more complex in the contemporary knowledge based industry with the knowledge workers contributing to the organization in the form of human capital. The search for newer forms of competitive advantage in organizations are being seen in the name of competencies at the individual level. Competencies are a combination of observable and applied knowledge, skills and behaviors that create a competitive advantage for an organization. It focuses on how an employee creates value and what is actually accomplished (Nath & Raheja in, 2004). From a managerial point of view, very little has so far been achieved with regard to the question of which competencies create success  in the organizations. The same is true in the scholarly research arena thus making the subject an exciting field of enquiry. This paper empirically investigates the role of competencies for employee development in the Indian IT and Pharma Industry. The importance of competencies in the talent acquisition, talent development and talent retention was also examined.  The data was collected from a randomly selected sample of 89 employees in the IT and Pharmaceutical industry. The   Awareness level of employees, usage of competencies in the different functions along with their perceptions has been collected through a specifically designed questionnaire.  Data was content analyzed in a descriptive way with simple statistical treatment of frequency and percentages using the SPSS package. The results show the importance of competencies for organizational success.  It also underscores the need for developing / implementing competency based approach for effective human resource management. 

Keywords: Competencies, India, Human Resource Management, empirical.

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Sustainable Distance Education through Mobile Learning: A Case Study in Multicultural Context
Subramaniam Chandran a
a Directorate of Distance Education, Vinayaka Missions University, India

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 35-40, 2010.

Abstract: This paper addresses three important issues: How technology does assure sustainable distance learning for multicultural group of students?; What is the relevance of mobile learning in context of developing countries with multicultural social environment?; and How does mobile learning confirm improved learning solution for different levels of students?. This paper reports the impact of mobile learning on distance education in multicultural environment. The emergence of learning technologies through CD, internet, and mobile is increasingly adopted by distance institutes for quick delivery and cost-effective purposes. Their sustainability is conditioned by the structure of learners as well as the teaching community. The experimental study was conducted among the distant learners of Vinayaka Missions University located at Salem in India. Students were drawn from multicultural environment based on different languages, religions, class and communities. During the mobile learning sessions, the students, who divided on language, religion, class and community, were dominated by play impulse rather than study anxiety or cultural inhibitions. This study confirmed that mobile learning improved the performance of the students despite their division based on region, language or culture. In other words, technology was able to transcend the relative deprivation in the multicultural groups. It also confirms sustainable distance education through mobile learning and cost-effective system of instruction. Mobile learning appropriates the self-motivation and play impulse of the young learners in providing sustainable distance education to multicultural social groups of students.

Keywords: Distance Education, Mobile Learning, Multiculturalism, Sustainability

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The relationship between school principals` leadership styles and physical education teachers` efficiency
Akbar Heidari c Habib Honari a, Mahmoud Goudarzi b , 
a Tabatabaee University, Iran.
 b, c Tehran University, Iran. 

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 34-40, 2010.

Abstract: The purpose of this study  is to consider the relationship between  leadership styles associated with physical education teachers efficiency at school settings. To this end,40  school principals and 40  male and female physical education teachers at secondary schools were randomly assigned to participate in the study .  School principals performance assessed with Fiddler leadership style questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.86 by teachers. Also,   teachers` performance evaluated with teacher -made  questionnaire with validity coefficient of 0.87 (Cronbach Alpha) completed by the students.  Data distribution was normal shown in this study using kolmogorov-smirnov test .Additionally, statistical method in terms of statistical model is parametric, while non-parametric statistics is employed for heterogeneous groups through which desired hypotheses discussed using Pearson correlation test , Spearman correlation coefficient and T –test. Results indicate that there exists a significant relationship between the leadership style of school principals and physical education teachers efficiency at 5% significance level. The results show that participative leadership style would end up with substantial efficiency of male and female education teachers, whereas authoritative leadership style has shown the lowest efficiency. 

 Keywords: Authoritative leadership style,  Participative leadership style, School principals, Teachers

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An Empirical Study on Inflation and Economic Growth in Bangladesh
Md. Shoaib Ahmed a
a Faculty of Business, ASA University, Bangladesh.

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 41-51, 2010.

Abstract: In this study, the relationship between the inflation and the economic growth in Bangladesh has been examined in the framework of data covering 1988:2008 periods. The existence of the long term relationship between these two variables has been examined using Bound Test developed by Pesaran et al. (2001), and the existence of a cointegration relationship between the two series has been detected following the test result. Whereas no statistically significant long term relationship has been found with the formed ARDL models, a negative and statistically significant short term relationship has been found. The Causality relationship between the two series has been examined in the framework of the causality test developed by Toda Yamamoto (1995) but no Causality relationship has been found from economic growth to inflation, a Causality relationship has been found from inflation to economic growth.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Cointegration, ARDL Model, Causality Relationship, Bound Test. 

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Experiences In Adoption Of Integrated Pest Management (Ipm) Strategies In Zanzibar
Zainab S. Abdullah a; V.Y. Lada b, Khamis Mohd c
a,b.c Plant Protection Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Zanzibar

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 52-57, 2010.

Abstract: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was adopted by Plant Protection Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Zanzibar to improve agricultural production on major crops (rice, banana, cassava and vegetables) at small scale farming system. The multi-disciplinary group of IPM facilitators created awareness to farmers by conducting seminars, workshops and discussions. The IPM groups were formed through Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal (PRRA). PRRA was also used to identify problems and training needs. Farmer field School approach was introduced using the adaptation of the methodology adapted from South East Asian Ecosystem. Farmers were empowered on environmentally sound practices such as disease free planting materials certified seeds, botanical control, etc. On-farm trials within Participatory Action Research (PAR) was also conducted by participatory technology development method. A total of 52 farmers’ groups involving 1,038 farmers (549 males and 489 females) have been trained. There was a yield increase for all the crops  with the adoption of IPM practice, irrigated rice was from 2.2 – 4.4 tons/ha, rainfed rice 2.3 – 3.4 tons/ha, tomato 9.5 – 33.7 tons/ha, amaranthus 4.2 – 11.7 tons/ha , bananas 11.3 – 17.6 tons/ha, and cassava 15.9 – 33.6 tons/ha. The results had a good impact in terms of adoption of technologies by the IPPM farmers and the neighboring farmers.  

Keywords: Agro eco-system, Food security, Mono-crop, Pest management 

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Social Exclusion, Marginalization And The Threat Of Extinction Of Ethnic Monorities: A Case Of The Batwa Community In Uganda
Emmanuel Turyatunga a 
a Center For Basic Research, Kampala, Uganda.

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 58-63, 2010.

Abstract: While the rest of the world enjoys the fruits of technological advancement, economic growth, better social services, and improved standards of living generally, there are some groups of people that continue to languish in forgotten corners of the world. Using the Batwa case, this paper is concerned with the minorities who have been excluded from mainstream development, and whose very existence is under threat. The Uganda Land Alliance for Coalition of Pastoral Civil Society Organizations (COPACSO) has warned that the few thousand Batwa of Uganda are in danger of extinction.

This paper is situated within the context of sustainable human development, with a specific focus on the developing world. The author believes human development should be rooted within the grassroots communities and that it should be holistic/integral – taking care of all dimensions of a human being, such as the economic, social, political, cultural, religious, and ideological aspects. 

While minority groups like People Living With Disabilities and Homosexuals, have human rights organizations fighting for their rights, the voice of the Batwa is so faint that many people do not even know they exist. Apparently the Batwa have continued to lag behind in terms of access to medical and educational services, as well as other programs meant to improve the lives of Ugandans. Striking among the key issues presented in this paper is the feeling expressed by some Batwa that their whole community is going to die of HIV/AIDS.

The significance of this paper is to give a deeper understanding of the vulnerability of the minority peoples in the developing world. The issues raised are expected to trigger a critical debate, thereby initiating the process of dialogue on the protection of minority indigenous communities in the developing world, alongside their cultures, in order to bring about sustainable development.

Keywords: Marginalization, Minorities, Social Exclusion, Sustainable Development, Uganda

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Sustainable Rural Development In Nigeria 
Issues And Facts
(Sharing Initiative Of Total Exploration And Production Nigeria Limited)
Emma Ifeanyi Ogueri a, b ,Vincent Nnadi c
a Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  
 c Sustainable Development & Public Affairs, Total Exploration and Production, Nigeria Limited
 b Fresh Impact Rural Development Initiative, Rivers State, Nigeria

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 64-77, 2010.

Abstract: Nigeria is blessed with natural resources especially hydrocarbons. Managing proceeds of resources to develop rural communities had created several conflicts.

International communities had long been contributing to development in Nigeria. International NGOs, Bilateral organizations, Multinational corporations have demonstrated sufficient interest in development issues of Nigeria. Surprisingly, more assistance in Nigeria means higher poverty and conflict levels. The population is at geometrical increase without corresponding increase in social amenities. Known cities are congested due to high rural-urban migration. Most Nigerians who could no longer bear the congestion associated discomforts had either legally migrated to developed countries or sought asylum.

Frequently asked questions included “what had happened to resources generated from oil and gas productions, what of the aid programmes of international organizations and the rural development initiatives of the multinational oil and gas industries. How come most communities are still very rural and basic amenities lacking”? 

To address above questions, Fresh Development Rural Development Initiative, a Non Governmental Organization decided to x-ray challenges, issues and facts against sustainable rural development in Nigeria. Of particular concern was the participation of multinational oil and gas industries in rural development in Nigeria with a view to sharing any best practice.

Methodology adopted was social research using Participatory Rural Appraisal, Rapid Rural Appraisal and Participatory Learning and Action. Sampling techniques were purposive, random. Data collection tools included Interviews, Focused group discussions and Practitioner’s experience.

Summarily, results pointed to mismanagement of project funds, low execution capacity, lack of political will, insecurity and insincerity on the part of project beneficiaries (the rural people). Equal accusing fingers were pointed to beneficiaries and Nigerian governance system. Rural development project funds were embezzled while strategies employed created conflicts among rural communities.

Suggested ways forward for conflict free sustainable rural development included organization of national rural development strategy summit, de-emphasizing contractocrazy, execution capacity development, realistic costing and improved monitoring. 

Keywords: Illegal immigrants or asylum seekers, Niger Delta, Total Exploration and Production Nigeria Limited “best practice strategy”, Poverty stricken rural communities.

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Factor Effecting Learner’s Satisfaction Towards 
E-Learning: A Conceptual Framework
Mahwish W. Malik a
a International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Volume 02, Issue 03, Pg. 78-81, 2010.

Abstract: The technology has embraced the innovative learning methodologies. New interactive media is in use now for delivering educational information. E-Learning has taken the place of traditional face-to-face educational environment. E-Learning is the learning style empowered by digital technology. Though, this new learning paradigm is very attractive approach for both learners and instructor; the growth of web-based learning media is very low. The main beneficiary of any educational environment is the learner. The satisfaction of the learner is inevitable for successful implementation of web-based educational environment. This paper is showing the factors which are playing influential role towards student web-base learning satisfaction. The student and instructor attitude towards technology, their computer efficacy, and instructor response, friendly interface of the online learning environment and proper facilitation of technical matters are the factors that influence student satisfaction towards online education. Administration is suggested to consider these factors for successful virtual education implementation.

Keywords: E-Learning, Student Satisfaction, Key Factors

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