Volume 02 Issue 02

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Output Fluctuations and Macroeconomic Policy in Nigeria
Trends Analysis and Policy Implication for Attainment of NEEDS and MDGs in Nigeria
Saibu M.O a
a Department of Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, 
Ile-Ife, 234 220005, Southwest Nigeria.

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 09-26, 2010.

Abstract: This paper examines the trends and patterns of fluctuations in real output growth in Nigeria. The paper used simple statistical tools to analyse the links among the macroeconomic variables. The analysis shows that real output experienced its full business cycle and growth rate of 1970s remained unsurpassed despite the array of policy reforms and palliatives introduced after the recession in the 1980s. However; there is strong evidence that the power of both monetary and fiscal policy to track output growth and fluctuation is reduced at a higher degree of economic openness. The paper concludes that the cause of real output fluctuation may be externally induced and macroeconomic policy plays little role in real output fluctuation in Nigeria. Thus to achieve the national economic empowerment and development strategy (NEEDS) and MDGs, it is imperative for Nigerian government to redirect attention from public oriented to private sector driven approach of economic management 

Keywords: Macroeconomic Policy, Output Fluctua­tions, Trade Openness

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Gender analysis of factors influencing agro-biodiversity conservation in Dinvar, Kermanshah province, Iran
Iraj Malakmohammadia, Neda Heidarianb, Hosein Shbanali Famic, and Atri Samieed
a,b,c Department of Agricultural Extension Education, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
dDepartment of Agricultural Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 27-34, 2010.

Abstract: With the dawn of the debates on agro-biodiversity erosion, more people and governments than ever before recognize the need to conserve agro-biodiversity. Although, the threat of agro-biodiversity erosion as a global concern has stimulated many studies to explore how this diversity can be maintained, practices of farmers and roles played by them in agro-biodiversity conservation have been little investigated in detail, particularly from gender analysis perspective. Considering the significance of agro-biodiversity conservation, however, women and men must play an equal part in its management. There is, therefore an urgent need to consider gender – who does or uses what and how and why – in development efforts, to ensure the sustainable conservation and use of agro-biodiversity now and in the future. Both FAO (2004) and Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD 2001) identify women as users, managers and preservers of biological diversity and give priority to their recognition and consequent involvement.  The contribution of women to the maintenance and enhancement of crop diversity, which is often overlooked, is very important. Therefore, an analysis of their role is an important factor in understanding agro-biodiversity management (Padmanabhan, 2004).

Keywords: agro-biodiversity, agro-ecosystem Con­servation, , gender analysis 

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Sustainable Tourism Development in Iran: Concept, Opportunities and Challenges
Maryam Hamedia
a International Development Department, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK. 

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 35-43, 2010.

Abstract: This paper is about sustainable tourism development in Iran in answer to the question of “How tourism can contribute to development in developing countries”. As such, it seeks to provide an account of debates on the concept of development and the nature of tourism, both as phenomena of modernity, followed by the idea of sustainability as an alternative paradigm. In this way, ‘sustainable tourism development’ is a matter of consideration. Moreover, Iran will be seen as an interesting case in two respects: first, as a peculiar country within the developing world since it has the material aspects of development in significant extent; second, as a ‘religious modernisation’ where most discussions of tourism have tended to emphasis tourism within Western modernity. It was found that although the principles of sustainable tourism development are beneficial, there are serious obstacles to their operationalisation due to priorities of national economic policy, the structure of public administration, local participation, cultural conflicts and environmental issues. Thus in macro level it requires reconsideration in political and economic choices, and in micro level decisions ought to be made with regards to socio-cultural and environmental necessities at tourist destinations.

Keywords: Challenges, Iran, Sustainable develop­ment, Sustainable tourism development.

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Ethnicity and Democracy: A Case of Kenya
Douglas Lucas Kivoia
a Department of Philosophy, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 44-47, 2010.

Abstract: When Plato observed that “only the dead have seen the end of war,” the Greek philosopher seemed to have seen modern Africa from a distance. Conflicts have become so regular in Africa that they almost constitute a pattern. The roots of African conflicts are many and diverse but very few are as strong as ethnicity. It is a very powerful force that has been harnessed negatively by lords of impunity to deform Africa. Max Weber defined an ethnic group as those human beings or groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent because of migration or colonization in such a way that this belief is important for the continuance of non-kinship communal relationship. The politics of identity and ethnicity will remain a fundamental characteristic of the Kenyan democracy. 

 In this paper, I intend to address why ethnicity represents a political problem in Kenya, how the problem manifests itself, and which institutional models offer ways of ameliorating the challenges that ethnicity poses to democratic nation-building. In Kenya there is a relationship between ethnic fractionalization, lower levels of democracy and bad governance. This study seeks to separate out the association between negative ethnicity and poor government performance by disentangling the relationship between ethnicity and democracy. I argue that, the quality of democracy and good governance has been affected by negative ethnicity. Specifically, higher levels of ethnic voting in Kenya reinforce the exclusive democratic practices which undermines democracy and quality leadership hence quality of life. This in turn has bred a cycle of violence after every election that saw the International Criminal Court (ICC) move in to try and end this menace.

Keywords: Ethnicity, democracy, colonization, mul­ticultural

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Policy options for the resolution of involuntary resettlements induced by hydroelectricity projects in the context of urbanization in China—a case from Longtan Reservoir1)
Xiao Pinga,b, Qin Chaojuna
a Institute of Involuntary Resettlement, China Three Gorges University,443002
b Lab of Global Land and Water, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 48-54, 2010.

Abstract: Involuntary resettlements induced by hydroelectricity projects (IRHP) are deeply affected by rapid urbanization in China. Therefore, the issue should be analyzed, resolved in the context of urbanization. The metropolitan area of east China should be one of the major bases for resettlements. There is possibility to displace these people out, no matter whether it is because of the ecological condition and social-economic development in emmigration areas (“push” side), or it is because of the demand for labors in the metropolitan area of east China (“pull” side). Through the case of Longtan Reservoir, a package of welfare policies and a fiscal budget in the extreme condition (permanent urban resettlement for all agricultural resettlers) are provided to show that permanent resettlement in the context of urbanization is also sufficient. The package of welfare is made of social security, 9-year financial aid for child’s education, and low renting housing system. Based on the analysis, some issues are further discussed: the way of non-agricultural resettlement for agricultural resettlers, threshold for admission to obtain urban identification (Hukou) and welfare package, professional and employment training for resettlers, and shifts from two different resettlement ways (non-agricultural and agricultural).

Keywords: urbanization, resettlements hydroelcetric­ity projects, Longtan Reservoir, welfare policies

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Sand-trapped water reservoirs: Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in remote Communities of South Africa
Olufisayo A. Olufayoa, Fred A.O. Otienob, and George M.Ochiengc
aTshwane University of Technology, South Africa.
bTechnology, Innovation and Partnerships, Durban University of Technology, South Africa.
cCivil Engineering Department, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa.

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 55-58, 2010.

Abstract: South Africa water resources are scarce in global terms with mean annual rainfall 50 per cent less than world average of 860 mm/a . On the other hand, increasing economy development and resulting contamination of water resources further reduced water availability. The conventional water resources (largely surface water) in the country have been fully exploited. So therefore, new methods are needed to make limited water resources available. High evaporative losses from surface storage, increasing costs of large dams and aridity conditions make development of unconventional sand water storage appealing for freshwater augmentation.

Keywords: Rural water supply, groundwater, run-off storage, ephemeral river. 

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The Tragedy of Halabja
A pathological review on social-legal aspects of the case from historical and international points of view
Akbar Valadbigia, Shahab Ghobadib
  a State University of Yerevan, Armenia.
 b Kurdistan State University, Iran.

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 59-69, 2010.

Abstract: March 16, 1988 is supposed to be a human catastrophe for all the times, when the tragedy of Halabja, the genocide of a nation, evident grimace at human and civil rights and the most detestable form of military operation against undefended Kurd civilians in the closing years of 20th century took place ٍExtensive military operations called” Anfal” were undertaken in three phases by means of mass destruction weapons against Kurd residents of North Iraq in the mid 1987 April. Due to lack of meeting their rights within Iraq, the Kurds will have this right to demand their human and ethnical rights and international society will be expected to defend this right. Perspectives of this article include: anatomy of power and its structural deviations in the world and the Middle East, protocols regarding prohibiting construction and application of mass destruction weapons in relation with public opinions, power deviations and their relevance with the structures of undemocratic governments of the Middle East, world capitalism and regional catastrophes, reactionary ideology of ”Fascism” and its Eastern illegitimate child-Arabic Ba’athism*- , and finally fear and hope and disappointing perspective of ” civil society” in the Middle East.

Keywords: Halabja, Chemical Weapons, War Rights, Militarism, Genocide, Fascism, Ba’athism, Power, the Middle East, Civil Society.                                   

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Study Of Agricultural Drought And Its Impact On Rice Yield In Rupandehi District, West Nepal

Govinda Bhandaria, Rijan Bhakta Kayasthab

a,b Department of Environmental Science and Engineering

Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal.

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 70-83, 2010.

Abstract: The relationship between climate (rainfall, temperature etc) and rice production was studied for the period 1975/76-2002/03 in Rupandehi District, Nepal. The monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) value of rice is calculated by Blaney-Criddle equation. UNEP aridity index is used to identify the dryness of a region at rice growing seasons. The average Aridity Index (AI) of rice growing season from 1975 to 2002 is 1.54. The seasonal AI in 1979, 1991, 1992 and 1994 is 1.49, 1.19, 1.16 and 1.05 respectively i.e. below the average seasonal AI from 1975-2002. So, the rice yield in the year 1979, 1991, 1992 and 1994 has decreased due to the dryness of a region that is caused due to inadequate rainfall and gradual rise in temperature. Though modern facilities such as irrigation, improved seeds and fertilizers are available to some extent, weather and climate still plays an important role in the yield or rice in Nepal.   

Keywords: agricultural drought, aridity index, poten­tial evapotranspiration, Rupandehi district

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Globalization of sustainable human and social development
(A case study on African woman)
Oludele Adesina Moyofadea
aMADAM (Migration and development in Africa monitors)

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 84-88, 2010.

Abstract: Culturally, the values held by the womenfolk within Nigerian traditional social system were symbolically tied to their ascribed social roles. Such roles, as obtainable in larger segments of sub-Sahara African societies, often include procreating, household chores such as cooking, cleaning, caring for others. Aside from these, it was commonly believed that women could hardly be relevant elsewhere. However, with the advent of globalization, functions have become unprecedently differentiated. New challenges have been presented to humanity. Skills and capabilities have come to replace cogent nefarious considerations, which had limited women’s involvement in the process of globalization on contemporary Nigerian women’s existence. This paper is set to examine critically the impact of globalization in the late modern world. 

Keywords: Cultural imperialism, Culture, Globalization, women

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Electronic Governance And Democracy
Jose de Ribamar Lima da Fonseca Júniora
a, Foundation for Research and Scientific and Technological Development of Maranhão – FAPEMA

Volume 02, Issue 02, Pg. 89-96, 2010.

Abstract: Democracy does not enjoy the world of good health, as it has ever enjoyed in the past, but it is not on the verge of grave”. These words are from the Italian master Norberto Bobbio, who, after this first part, states that “for a democratic regime, the constant transformation is your natural state: the democracy is dynamic, the despotism is static and always equal to itself”. According to this idea, this article was written in order to show, objectively, that with the advent of the new Information and Communication Technologies – ICT’s –, appears the possibility of creating brand new democratic institutions, imagined from the direct participation of citizens in politics through the using of new technologies, especially the Internet. It also shows that, due to the new electronic technology infrastructure, provided by networked computers and by a plenty number of communication devices and organization, storage and delivery of data and online information, appears the Electronic Democracy, a new concept resulting from this modern era of computing.

Keywords: Democracy, digital, governance, internet, technology, 

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