Volume 02 Issue 01

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Role Of Forensic Medicine Expert In Human Rights In India
Dogra T.D.a; Lalwani S.b, Raina A.c
 a,b,c Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. 

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 10-15, 2010.

Abstract: Every human being enjoys fundamental human rights without any discrimination. Article 21 of the Indian constitution provides guaranteed right of life and personal liberty to every citizen including the right to health and the conditions that are essential for health.   

Considering the health as a fundamental right, the ethical issues like consent, confidentiality, autonomy, justice, doctor patient relationship, malpractices, organ donation, equitable and nondiscriminatory allocation of human organs and other issues of use of spurious drugs, drug abuse, medico legal cases, prevention of torture, scientific interrogative techniques like narco-analysis, brain  mapping, custodial death, mental health, female feticide, child abuse, elderly abuse, gender based violence, domestic violence, human trafficking, sexual abuses and exploitation, mass disasters, disposal of dead, identification of living and dead, euthanasia and surrogacy require special consideration in reference to the legal framework in India and human rights. 

All these require proper investigation, analysis and documentation. Forensic medicine has made a very significant contribution in detection, reporting and prevention of human rights violation. Thus accurate, proper and honest forensic medicine evidences contribute significantly in above mentioned situations pertaining to human right violations. 

Various procedures, directions and recommendation have been made by National Human Rights Commission and other agencies in India for medical doctors and forensic experts to avoid omission or commission on the part of medical practitioner while dealing such situations. Even chapter on human right have been added in undergraduate (M. B., B S Degree) and postgraduate (M.D., Forensic Medicine) curriculum. 

The Department of forensic medicine at all India Institute of Medical Sciences is engaged in dealing with large number of cases pertaining to human rights and is also engaged in teaching to undergraduate and postgraduate students. This department also acts as adviser to National Human Right Commission of India to advice on complicated medico legal cases of custodial deaths. In this article role of Forensic Medicine Expert in all these issues has been discussed. 

Keywords: Forensic medicine, forensic expert, human rights, medico-legal case, 

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Immaterialism And Minimal Religiousness In Iran
Taghi Azadarmaki a, Maryam Alemzadeh b
a,b Social Science Faculty, The University of Tehran, Iran

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 16-27, 2010.

Abstract: An International collective research made by Ronald Inglehart and his fellows in many industrial countries indicates that alongside an increase in the tendency of the majority of people towards “immaterialism” (Freedom of Speech, Quality of Life and their religiousness has found a minimal form: contentment with basic religious beliefs and self-centered spiritual experiences and the not so strong feeling of obligation to all forms of religious rites and rituals as recommended in Abraham’s religion. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not a relationship exists between the religiousness and tendencies of individuals to meta-ethics in the context of the Iranian Society, which is expected to encounter certain complexities. Results indicate that despite researches performed in other countries, in the Iranian society a very weak relationship exists between these two variables. Closer inspection of the materialism- immaterialism factor has indicated that due to the absence of ethical clarity, the mere evaluation of one’s level of tendencies towards either of the two poles of materialism-immaterialism does not result in useful results for analysis purposes.

Keywords: Immaterialism, Religiousness, tradi­tional, experimental

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Examining The Relationship Of Work Life Balance, Job Satisfaction And Turnover In Pakistan
Muhammad Imran Malik a, Solomon Fernando Gomez b, Mehboob Ahmad b, 
Muhammad Iqbal Saif b
a, b FUIEMS, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan.

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 28-35, 2010.

Abstract: Employee turnover is one of the critical issues discussed in the organizational studies. This paper examines the effect of work – life balance and job satisfaction on the turnover intentions of doctors. A random sample of 204 (40.8% response rate) medical professionals working in hospitals across Pakistan was considered for the study. Cronbach’s alpha scores confirmed the reliability of the measures used. The results of the cross – sectional study show that the doctors who are better able to manage the work and the life activities are more satisfied with their jobs and have less intentions to leave their jobs. Data was processed by using SPSS, t- test, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The study contributes to the available literature by providing an empirical evidence to prove the relationship and explore the cultural aspect of the said relationship in a developing country. Results were discussed in the light of available literature.

Keywords: Work – life balance, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, doctors, Pakistan.

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Migration And Street Children In Bangladesh
Soniya Wazed a
a Institute of Applied Social Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 36-44, 2010.

Abstract: Children are the assets of a state.  Unfortunately in many developing countries children involved in various economic activities due to overall for mere survival. The nature and extent of child labor differ from region to region; depending on the socioeconomic condition of a particular society in which the children live. The number of street children has been rising day by day in the capital of Bangladesh. Therefore, the phenomenon of street children developed a preference for development workers and policy makers in the most of developing countries. Many studies showed that thousands of street children all over in Bangladesh, primarily in the urban areas, work and live in the streets. These street children not only deprived of the most basic rights that citizens are guaranteed by the country but also have stopped expecting it. However, in recent years, in spite of the growing social problems in these communities and although some progress were made, there is still a lack of adequate information on the extent of the problem, and knowledge of its root causes.

In this paper, I will try to explore the processes of street migration with the interaction of both ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors not only based on their economic necessities but also their livelihood strategies in street life. This paper will also addresses that high population density, poor quality of education, the conflicting relationships of the family such as polygamy and remarriage, patriarchy (male-headed household), natural calamities, lack of economic opportunities and violation of child rights are the determinant forces that ‘pushing’ children to carry on street life from  their rural place to street life in Bangladesh.  Most of the children of developing nations have deprived of their basic needs. Their deteriorating socioeconomic circumstances being push and pull in the nature of works that are actually dangerous for their physical and intellectual development. Subsequently, it also examines the difference between the push and pull factors of migration that impinge new challenges for street children.

Keywords: Children, migration, poverty, unemployment

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An Evaluation Of Small And Medium Enterprises Development In Pakistan 
Sobho Khan Jamali a; Lawal M. Anka b; Aijaz A. Khooharo c
a Department of Economics, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
 b Sindh Development Studies  Centre, University of Sindh Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan.
c Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Sindh Agricultural University, Tandojam Pakistan.

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 45-51, 2010.

Abstract: Small and medium enterprises are the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. They are an efficient user of the scarce resources and has better linkages with other sectors of domestic economy. However few researcher studies examined their development, challenges and future prospects. Therefore the aim of this paper is to examine and analyse the structure, growth, impact and problems in financing SME issues affecting SME sector and suggest a strategic framework for enhancing the competitiveness of Pakistan SME in regional and global market. The major conclusion drawn from this paper were the SME sector in Pakistan is facing many problems and challenges both domestic and better prospects in marketing their products at international market. This paper recommend some measures as a positive step towards addressing the above problems and challenges so as to guarantee a sound future for SME in Pakistan. 

Keywords:  Growth, migrant worker, Small Medium Enterprises, public private partnership, 

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Empirically Testing The Relationship Of Social Support, Job Satisfaction And Work -Family Balance In Pakistani Socio Cultural Set-Up
Solomon Fernando Gomez a, Noor Khan b, Muhammad Imran Malik c,
Muhammad Iqbal Saif c
a. c FUIEMS, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan.
b Iqra University, Islamabad.

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 52-58, 2010.

Abstract: Healthy family life and organizational success depend upon balancing marital obligations and work responsibilities. Pakistan has joint family system, male dominant culture with religious overtones which do not have much space for females to enter the corporate world. The male is considered the head of family with the responsibilities of earning bread and butter. The highly educated female has representation at all walks of life including army and social sector but her prime responsibility is considered to look after family. Many educated girls, after completion of education do not enter in professional organizations due to cultural impediments, religious restrictions and social limitations. Working females are looked down upon and they are socially marginalized. In this scenario when female shares the economic burden with her male counterpart, her responsibilities are doubled, meeting her family tasks, keeping her husband happy and fulfilling organizational commitments. This paper examines the relationship of social support, job satisfaction and work – family balance among male and female employees in Pakistani socio-cultural setup. A random sample of 250 respondents working in private and public sector organizations has been taken. Reliability of the scales used in the questionnaire has been checked and found satisfactory. Independent sample t – test, Pearson’s correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to get results. The study has revealed many interesting results including that male permit female and provides social support for work to avoid many family issues and problems caused by joint family system. They think, when female reach home after long day of hectic commitments, physically burnt-out, mentally exhausted, they find less time to get involved in family quarrels whereas female have to work hard to perform well at organizational environment, because this is the only outing opportunity they can avail to spend time out of depressed family surroundings. That’s among the many reasons they receive social support to work. In Pakistani cultural perspective the study gains significance and warrants further investigation as the results seemly stand anomalous to the perceptions in the male-dominated Muslim society.

Keywords: Gender, Social support, Work family balance, Pakistan

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Socio- Economic Impact Of Communal Conflict On Cocoa Farmers’ Livelihood In Nigeria
 Bolarinwa, K.K.a, Oyeyinka, R.A b,  Ajayi, M. c, Fakoya, E.O d
 a, b,c Department of Agricultural Administration
 d Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development,
University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 59-66, 2010.

Abstract: Cocoa is an economic crop which contributes immensely to gross domestic product of the nation and increase socio-economic status of farmers. However communal conflicts management style, employed by cocoa farmers often lead to destruction of life and properties in Core Conflict Areas (CCA). Attempt has been made by Governmental and non-governmental agencies to provide relief packages for conflict victims with little or no efforts geared towards socio-economic impacts of conflicts on farmers’ livelihood variables which necessitate this study. The conflict areas were stratified into CCA and Outside Conflict Areas (OCA) based on anecdotal account of conflict impact in the area. Farmers’ village list was used as sampling frame work where 10% of the farmers were randomly selected, from CCA, 61and OCA 69 to give a total of 130 farmers who participated in the research. Data were collected using interview schedule, direct observation and analyzed using frequency, percentage as well as t-test. Findings revealed that farmers in CCA and OCA are in the average age range of 40.5 and 42.6 respectively and 70% of them were educated.  OCA recorded higher Cocoa Mean Production Level (HCMPL) of 828.4 tonnes per annual as opposed to lower HCMPL of 105.0 tonnes recorded in CCA because 76% of them were displaced from their farm. Cocoa production level between core and outside conflict areas level is statistically different at P<0.05. Consequently majority (70%) of the farmers in core conflict areas live below poverty line.  Hence, conflict relief packages in form of economic empowerment of the conflict victims and conflict management training technique should be promoted so as to bring peace an “essential factor of productions” in CCA.

Keywords: Production level, annual income level, communal conflict impact, farmers and cocoa

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Impacts Of Irrigated Legume-Based Cropping On Rhizobia Diversity, Insect Pollinators, And Soil Seed Bank In A Rangeland Ecosystem, 
ISINYA District, Kenya
Using the sustainable preferred-stable-state model in a narrative
Austin Uduogu Okezie Denis a
a Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 67-88, 2010.

Abstract: Range assessment in the past involved the monitoring of the growing condition of natural vegetation, and thus the prospect for yield of animal products. The assumptions were: (1) that land will be managed to maintain range ecology vegetation to the exclusion of annual food crops, (2) that land carrying capacity assessment will provide adequate information on range trend and condition, and (3) that flux in community is merely produced through grazing, burning, and clearing, and climax is expected to re-establish through natural sequence of regenerations. This approach in range management came under scrutiny in Africa from the 1980s due to a better appreciation of the multifunctional use of the range. 

The old approach had been successful in the past, but today they can only produce a partial picture of what is happening in the tropical rangelands. The present reality is that population pressure is causing people to migrate from the humid regions and settling in rangelands, bringing with them non-traditional range agricultural practices; which some pastoralists are forced by circumstances to also acquire and incorporate in order to subsist on the range. In East Africa this social adjustment has been helped by a better access to modern agricultural technology such as groundwater irrigation and improved cultivars developed for drylands. Crop production – alone or accompanied by livestock keeping – has become viable, profitable and in practice on the range. Grain outputs are supplementing if not replacing milk and meat as sources of nutrition and income for range households. Carrying capacity based on number of livestock or forage production is no longer adequate for range assessment. What is needed now is a total assessment of range conditions using approaches that reflect the current rangeland uses. Where mixed farming is practiced, an overall range assessment must look at the total sustainable yield of grains and animal products. Clearing and cultivation together with the biodiversity implications must now be put on the same level as burning and grazing as factors of range assessment. The biodiversity implications of irrigated farming and the multifuntionality of the East African rangelands must now come under increasing focus.

The scale of assessment now needed in the East African rangelands calls for a deviation from the normal management that depends too highly on the Clementsian theory of vegetation succession, which tends to promote one operational state. The outcome of this old approach will not meet utilitarian and economic needs of the land owner today. The production ecosystem it promotes seems over determined by natural environmental conditions, and the approach has not fully factored in the human ability to change the fortunes of the dryland through innovation and progress in technology. The rangeland inhabitants of East Africa are re-inventing and redefining the range landuse potential by embracing appropriate and increasingly affordable agricultural technology, such as simple irrigation systems and biotechnology of improved cultivar for dryland farming. Under the changing demographic structure the system is more complex than ever; so rather than working to maintain one stable operational state, range management that leans towards non-equilibrium concepts such as the state-and transition model or the self-organizing holarchic open system theory will provide a better idea of how condition and trends in the East African rangelands can be assessed. Drawing from these theories, this study proposes the sustainable preferred-stable-state model as an approach for regional range monitoring and assessment.     

Keywords: African rangelands, rhizobia assessment, climatic limitations, vegetation, irrigation, sustainable preferred-stable-state.

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Gender Involvement In Fadama Farming For Sustainable Food Security In Ogun State, Nigeria
Fakoya, E. O.a , Ajayi, M. T.b, Oloruntoba, A. A. b, Bolarinwa, K. K.b
a Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development,
University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
b Department of Agricultural Administration,
University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Volume 02, Issue 01, Pg. 89-96, 2010.

Abstract: The study focused on gender involvement in fadama farming for sustainable food security in Obafemi Owode Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.  Eighty fadama farmers comprising of 34 males and 46 females were selected using purposive sampling technique.  Questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents.  Data were analysed using frequency distribution, percentages, mean, chi-square and correlation coefficient.  Results revealed that 30percent of the female farmers were literate, 23.42percent and 32.00percent were always involved in secondary occupation such as livestock rearing, trading and tailoring.  Also, men (100.00percent) and women (86.10percent) were involved in land clearing, while a higher proportion (72.70percent) of women were always involved in marketing of farm produce. More than 50percent of male and female farmers were involved in the cultivation of leafy and fruity vegetables. Maize and rice were the cereals commonly cultivated by male and female farmers. Chi-square result showed that there was a significant association between sex (χ2 = 1.56), marital status (χ2 = 6.54), educational level (χ2 = 2.05) and gender involvement in fadama farming (P < 0.05).  While correlation results revealed that there was a significant relationship between age (r = 0.75), years of farming experience (r = 0.67) and gender involvement in fadama farming. The study concluded that both men and women involved in fadama farming have their major role to play in contributing to household food security.

Keywords: Fadama farming, food security, gender involvement and sustainability

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