OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal
The Phenomenon of Globalization
A study with reference to marginalization and social disorder
Hamad Kakepto Hamadullah a
a Department of Sociology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 11- 16, 2010.
Abstract: It is assumed that the sociological consequences of the globalization process are identical for all societies. Their intensity, however, varies from country to country. The study generally aims: to draw the attention of social scientists to the emerging social disorder in all societies; and to indicate the possible role of religion and social institutions in the maintenance of social order. The specific objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze the major dimensions of globalization and its certain consequences for social institutions, state, family and education (2) to study the nature of emerging social disorder and the response of socio-religious movements to it (3) to examine the challenges to the sociology of religion in a globalization age and, (4) to analyze the role of religion and social institutions, state, family, and education, in the maintenance of social order.
Keywords: Globalization, marginalization, modern society
Good Leadership and Accountability for Sustainable Development
Adebimpe A. Adenugba a, S.A. Omolawal b
a Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
b Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 17-22, 2010.
Abstract: The challenge of sustainable development focuses on how today’s needs can be met without diminishing the capacity of future generations to meet their own. An effective utilization of available resources, human and non-human, is, therefore, a sine qua non for sustainable development. However, at the heart of the success of the efforts for sustainable development is good leadership. Leadership is not the private preserve of a few charismatic men or women; rather it is a process ordinary people use when they are bringing forth the best from themselves and others. Leadership is so powerful and important that it gives direction, pace and energy to the citizenry. It empowers them and above all, owes them a sense of accountability. Focusing on Nigeria, this paper examines the link between leadership, accountability and sustainable development. It argues that the major threat to her sustainable developmental efforts is traceable to poor leadership manifesting in corruption, weak value base and the absence of accountability. and concludes that until good leadership is guaranteed, Nigeria will continue to experience stunted economic growth and sustainable development.
Keywords: Accountability, leadership, sustainable development
Sustainable Development in Malaysia
A case study on household waste management
Muhammad Abdul Jalila
aDepartment of Business Administration, International Islamic University of Malaysia
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 23-34, 2010.
Abstract: Sustainable development (SD) is a concept which first originated in the 1970’s when the developed world undertook massive development project in terms of cutting and clearing forests and constructing high rising buildings and spacious highways. Development of a country is essential to meet the needs of its people and to provide people with the latest infrastructure, high rising buildings and recreation facilities. However, the development process concerns the world community as it affects the natural environment. The ecological balance breaks down and environmental degradation occurs at an alarming rate. Therefore, the world community started thinking about protecting the environment while implementing development activities. Environmental degradation also occurs from intensive industrialization of a country. Therefore, to protect the environment, the world community proposed sustainable development. Sustainable development has three components: economic development; social development; and environmental protection. A sustainable development project requires that in any development project, these three components of SD must be taken into consideration and implemented properly so that the environment is not adversely affected. This paper focuses only on a small aspect of environmental protection, that is, proper management of household waste. This paper discusses how household waste in Malaysia can be converted into vermicompost for use in plantations and agriculture. The production of vermicompost may reduce the amount of organic waste in the country and help to maintain a clean and fresh environment. Vermicompost can also reduce emission of methane gas which causes global warming. Descriptive and analytical research methodology has been applied in this research paper.
Keywords: Environment, household waste, landfills, vermicompost
Democracy on the Path to Detention
Nigeria electoral system in perspective
Mofe Oluwashola Jejea
aCenter for Democratic Assignment, Baruwa-Ipaja, Lagos, Nigeria
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 35-38, 2010
Abstract: Nothing seems to have held out much promise for a country that has suffered under successive military rule for many years than the return to electoral democracy in May, 1999. It was therefore, an ‘open sesame’ when the military were marched back to the barracks in change of guard for democratic governance in Nigeria. As the event unfolded, the press and many Nigerians cities went agog to celebrate this return in high hope. But unfortunately, the new ruler that emerged, as political events in the last ten years have shown, did not however satisfy the craving need for democracy despite the long wait. Political elites could hardly show that they are any better than the erstwhile military junta. Like the military before them, they could not meet the aspirations of the people for a democratic freedom and for an improvement in the material conditions of their life. It is therefore annoying, that ten years after the return to civilian rule, Nigeria still lacks adequate democratic legitimacy, as every election since then has been marred by violence, intimidation, bribery, vote-rigging, irregularities, system fraud and deliberate manipulation. Results of election primaries were altered and losers were substituted for winners while party constitutions were amended and re-amended at will in order to suit the vim and caprices of party leaders among others. Given the above development, it would appear that the political class has not learnt its lesson. If the masses are to decide and consequently take their future in their hands, they need a genuine democratic atmosphere and the evolution of an enviable and enduring electoral system becomes the critical political question.
Keywords: Corruption, democracy, electoral system, party politics
The Contribution of Muslim Charities
in the West to International Development
aWaterloo Lutheran Seminary, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada & Khazar University, Azerbaijan
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 39-44, 2010
Abstract: Since the mid 1990s, civil society has been making significant contributions to international development but, at the same time, it became a focus of a special concern in development discourse policy. However, regardless of its significant influence to international development, the Muslim organizations have been neglected in this discourse but this has been noticeable only after the terrible event of 9/11. Since the early 1980s, Islam has become a significant driver of change and Muslim organizations have become important actors in efforts to fight global poverty. The author tries to highlight the growing prominence of Muslim organizations in development contexts and argues that the contributions of these organizations are still inadequately understood. However, the paper also discusses the need to develop a nationwide umbrella organization in order to achieve more transparency and accountability.
Keywords: Global development, Islamic tradition, Muslim charities, religious
Sexual harassment of women academics in Pakistani universities
Atifa Durrania, Rai Mohammad Nasir Ali Khanb
aDepartment of Gender & Women Studies Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU)H-8, Islamabad, Pakistan
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 45-56, 2010
Abstract: Many people in Pakistan have not recognized sexual harassment as a serious social issue in Pakistani society. Most people, including women either deny its existence or take it as a part of the normal routine of working life. This denial may be because of its namelessness. Ironically, it is not even recognized as a form of discrimination against women in the constitution of Pakistan. The academy in Pakistan inadvertently supports this policy by denying its presence in higher educational institutions. The purpose of this study was to investigate what actually constitutes sexual harassment in Pakistani context and its presence in HE institutions. The namelessness, technicalities involved and broad scope of the definitions of sexual harassment confuse the women even working in academia. They find it hard to pinpoint which types of sexually harassing behaviours may be described as sexual harassment. Six in-depth interviews of women academics were conducted from two universities in Pakistan. Findings from the study revealed that sexual harassment exist in HE institutions and women academics have experienced it but did not know about the term to name their experiences. This study also showed that women academics face different forms of sexual harassment, which includes psychological, physical and professional harassment from their male colleagues in academia.
Keywords: Gender, reintegration, resettlement, violence
Growing Ineffectiveness of Traditional Forms of Communication (Media)in the Sustainable Development of Sri Lanka
The spread of new media among the younger generation
aJournalism Unit, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 57-64, 2010
Abstract: This study examines how rural youth interact with traditional and mainstream media to exchange development messages. Also, it looks at their knowledge of the usage of traditional media. In traditional media, the oral tradition included verbal arts or expressive literature which consisted of forms of utterances spoken, sung and voiced. Some of them include songs, tales, poetry, ballads, anecdotes, rhymes, proverbs and elaborate epics. Furthermore, material culture can be seen in traditional motifs, architectural design, clothes, fashions in various human groups. Also, these forms of traditional media can be seen in social folk customs, followed at birth, marriage, death or annual celebrations, festivals, fairs, ritual and ceremonial gatherings, market occasions and meeting at villages. The performing arts such as traditional music masquerades, dance and drama are functions where these forms can be seen. In this study, the main purpose is to understand how rural youth are connected through these traditional media and how their family members work together with them. The research problem is to find out whether the Sri Lankan traditional media messages contribute to the development of the rural masses and to find the nature of the interaction between the two. To achieve this objective, this study used the new entrants of the faculty of Arts in the University of Colombo as the sample. This research used a random sample method for the selection of the sample that included 200 students in their first year from rural areas, who have come to the university of Colombo from all over the country. For this research, a questionnaire was used to collect data. The experiment was conducted from June 9th until December 31st 2008 covering one entire semester. It was found out that the students were aware of the traditional communication media that had worked as a tool kit to distribute messages. Yet, those forms were used only for entertainment. Most of the students had seen those forms on television. Soon after entering to the University of Colombo, these students’ attitudes changed radically. At the end of first semester, 85% of them used mobile phones. After one year at the university, many of them were used to new media.
Keywords: Bali, gelkavi, kohomba kankariya, nurthi, parukavi, thovil, traditional
When There is “No Respect” at Work
Job quality issues for women in Egypt’s private sector
aDepartment of Public Policy and Administration,American University, Cairo, Egypt
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 65-80, 2010
Abstract: Female labour force participation in Egypt is very low. Despite increasing access to education, women’s labour force participation in Egypt is one of the lowest in the World. This paper purports to show that job quality issues in Egypt’s private sector are central to women’s limited labour market participation. The stagnation of public sector hiring as part of structural adjustment policies that started in the 1980s has limited women’s employment opportunities in this sector. However, the private sector offers jobs that are not attractive for women. These jobs are rarely based on signed work contracts, offer low pay and have long hours. The lack of job contracts prevents these employed women from contributing to the government’s pension plans, which are based on job contracts. Given the nature of the economy in Egypt, with the majority of economic enterprises being small or micro in scale, the presence of young women in these enterprises exposes them to issues of sexual harassment. Fear of sexual harassment is another reason why young women do not prefer to work in Egypt’s private sector. Interviewed young women also highlight the less tangible issues related to the way they are treated by employers as central to their assessment of their working conditions. Despite the stagnation of public sector hiring, its jobs are relatively women-friendly in terms of hours, workplace gender propriety and the less hierarchical relations. Therefore, young women continue to seek jobs in this sector. They accept short-term contracts in the public sector, hoping that these short term contracts might lead to permanent hiring. When these contracts do not turn into permanent contracts, which is usually the case, the public sector dream is a pursuit of a chimera. This study is based on ethnographic field methods of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Focusing on job quality issues, the study seeks to highlight women’s perceptions and views about job quality and subjectivities.
Keywords: Egypt, employment, gender, job quality
Why Policies Fail in Nigeria
An evaluation of agriculture policies made from 1972-1985
aSchool of Social Sciences, University of Lincoln, United Kingdom
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 81-86
Abstract: This paper shall examine why policies fail using as a case study the failure of agriculture policies in Nigeria from 1972-1985. It shall examine how factors such as lack of proper policy formulation, implementation and evaluation led to policy failure in the agriculture sector in Nigeria. Furthermore, the role of socio-political and economic factors affecting policy making shall be evaluated. In order to seek possible solutions to the problem of policy making in Nigeria, this paper shall evaluate relevant policy frameworks recommended by scholars for furthering the policy cycle. Consequently, this paper shall establish the best possible framework that can be used to avert policy failure in Nigeria. Theories of public policy that are used in writing this paper include the theory of agenda setting, inheritance before choice theory, deliberative process theory, and the rational policy transfer theory.
Keywords: Agriculture, formulation, implementation, policy
Microfinance and Inclusion of the Poor Bangladesh evidence
Mohshin Habiba, Christine Jubbb
aSwinburne University of Technology
bAustralian National University
Volume 01, Issue 01, Pg. 87-101, 2010
Abstract: This paper investigates in a Bangladeshi setting whether membership of a microfinance program reduces perceptions of social exclusion as well as impacting on poverty reduction. Using a control group that has no microfinance institution membership, it compares the responses of both members and non-members on questions relating to socio-political participation and social inclusion. The evidence is consistent with membership giving rise to reduced feelings of social exclusion compared to the control group without membership.
Keywords: Economic development, empowerment of women, gender, microfinance, poverty alleviation, social exclusion