Volume 11 Issue 07

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Governance of Brazilian Public Environmental Funds: illegal allocation of resources collected to the Fund for Defense of Collective Rights
Márcia Dieguez Leuzinger a, Davi Beltrão de Rossiter Corrêa b, 
Maria Fernanda Campos Rossiter c
a,b,c University Centre of Brasília – Uniceub, Brazil.

Volume 11, Issue 07, Pg. 11-25, 2018.

Abstract: The paper aims to describe models adopted in Brazil and Australia to structure and operate funds developed to invest on protection and management of the environment. It also seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of Brazilian Fund for Defense of Collective Rights respecting the amount used on supporting environmental projects and resources collected. Both jurisdictions face the challenge of reducing their alarming biodiversity loss rates and have very different environmental governance systems. The creation of protected areas, the extension of the existing protected areas and integration among these are major strategies for biodiversity recovery and environment protection in general. All these conservation initiatives demand financial support to be accomplished. Both public and private funds are organizational structures created by legal instruments and idealized as part of a major governmental strategy to finance the environment protect. A way of thinking their effectiveness is to evaluate how much has been invested compared to the total amount collected. Brazilian Fund for Defense of Collective Rights and Brazil National Fund for the Environment are two relevant public funds that should invest all their collection on protection and management of the environment, but that’s not happening. Both funds have been compelled to form surplus amounts that will be classified as contingency reserve and latter transferred to the Federal Union’s account. Resources that should be invested on environmental and other public interests projects end up on the Treasury account. Nevertheless, rulings from the Federal Supreme Court regarding public funds are starting to change that and determining the correct appropriation of public funds resources..  

 Keywords: Environmental Protection, Governance, Illegal allocation, Public Funds.

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The feasibility of cassava as sustainable source of clean energy production in Ghana- a concept proposal
Komla Tsey a, Sarah Warne c
The Cairns Institute and College of Arts Society and Education,
James Cook University, Cairns, Australia.

Volume 11, Issue 07, Pg. 25-28, 2018.

Abstract: The aim of this concept proposal is to invite interested development partners to work collaboratively with rural communities and other stakeholders in Ghana in order to determine the feasibility of cassava as a sustainable source for clean energy (ethanol) production. The proposal arose directly out of a paper titled, ‘The search for sustainable disposal of dead bodies- the case of Botoku rural Ghana’, which the lead of author of the current paper(KT) presented at the International Conference on Sustainable Development, Oxford UK 2018.  The currentpaper is a follow-up and attempts to mobilise support for rural communities such as Botoku to explore the feasibility of growing cassava for clean energy production. At the core of the proposal is the challenge of sustainability: how to improve the lives of the world’s poorest people in ways that have co-benefits for climate change mitigation and adaptation?After presenting the background and overview of the concept proposal, we highlight ways in which interested development practitioners, researchers and funders might be able to help determine the feasibility of the concept proposal. 

Keywords: Rural development, sustainability, cassava, clean energy, Ghana 

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Determinant Factors of the Distribution Growth at Micro, Small and Medium Business Credit in Indonesia 
Year of 2010-2015
Muhammad Zilal Hamzah a, Kadek Ayu Susiani Dewi b, Itjang D.Gunawan c
and Heny Ratnaningtyas d
a,b,d Lecturer of Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Bisnis Indonesia
(Indonesian Business School),  Jakarta, Indonesia
c Lecture of Doctoral Accounting Program, FEB Universitas Trisakti

Volume 11, Issue 07, Pg. 29-42, 2018.

Abstract: Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have an important role in the economy of Indonesian society. At least, there are 3 roles of MSMEs (role for poverty reduction, for leveling of income levels, and for increasing the foreign exchange reserve) those are very important for the living of small communities. That is why the Government of Indonesia should give high attention to these small people activities. Unfortunately, that the financing support especial for working capital and business development required for the development of MSMEs is still very inadequate. This is related to various factors beyond MSMEs: MSMEs have no transparent financial information, have no well organized, and cannot provide physical collateral and or other parties that can guarantee the high loan cost of transactions. 

Therefore, it is necessary for a banking company that has a vision and mission to prioritize services to MSMEs so that factors that cause MSMEs difficult to access banking institutions will be resolved. For example, if MSMEs cannot provide collateral or physical guarantee it can be replaced with insured loans, where there is cooperation between banking companies and Indonesian credit insurance companies regarding credit guarantee for financing to micro, small and medium enterprises. Growth MSME lending in Banks will run smoothly if the bank is in good health. Loan disbursement activities contain risks that may affect the health and viability of the bank’s business.

This study aims to examine the effect of Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earning and CAR toward Growth of Credit Distribution at National Commercial Banks. This study uses data from 2010-2015 with a sample of 12 National Commercial Banks whose corporate mission focused on MSMEs. The method used in this research is panel data regression. 

Partially, only CAR that has a significant effect towards the growth of credit distribution in Indonesia. Based on the above results banks should keep their CAR level to stay above 8%, because the higher the CAR then the greater the financial resources that can be used for business development purposes and anticipate the potential losses caused by the channeling of credit.

Keywords: Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earning, Capital and Growth of Credit Disbursement.

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Wireless Sensing Networks System Dependability Measurement
Magdi Osman Ali
Faculty of Engineering

Volume 11, Issue 07, Pg. 1-11, 2018.

Abstract: As dependability is an important activity in any engineering design, this paper is dedicated to the Wireless Sensing Networks (WSN) system design dependability measurement. The concepts of Reliability, Availability, and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) related to system dependability will be explored, besides the major control system considerations. In this paper mathematical model and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) tool for measuring and evaluating the system dependability have been used. Therefore, in the mathematical part, the probability theory has been used to measure Reliability R(t), and (MTTF) as the  system dependability attributes. In the second part, the same test has been accomplished by (FTA) using Sharpe’s tool software as an alternative method of check. Hence, the obtained measured results of these models were significant, tend to be identical, and helpfulness for improving the system dependability.

Keywords: Dependability Attributes, WSNs, probability theory, FTA.

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