Volume 11 Issue 06

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Assessing the inter-relationship between rural –urban migration and rural development: A case study of Delhi 
Centre for the Study of Regional Development, School of Social Sciences, 
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Volume 11, Issue 06, Pg. 11-23, 2016.

Abstract: Rural development can have both effect, it may encourage migration or may discourage. But the present study found that due to the unavailability of opportunities, facilities and resources, most of the people migrate to urban regions. The most important reason of migration for male is found to be employment while for female it is due to the migration of parents or earning member of the family. The household facilities index has improved for the Non-General category migrants while it is not so in case of General category migrants. The Standard of living index of migrants was found to have improved after migration.

Keywords: Migration; Rural Development; Informal Sector; Household Facilities Index; Standard Of Living Index.

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Building Entrepreneurship for Water, Liquid and Solid Waste Management in Temeke Municipal Council of 
Dar-es- Salaam Tanzania. A Social Return on Investment Analysis
Reginald Kwizela a, Abel Dugange b , Ibrahim Kabole c , Ronnie Murungu d , 
David Watako e
a, b, cd, e WaterAid Tanzania, Dar-es- Salaam,Tanzania.

Volume 11, Issue 06, Pg. 25-49, 2018.

 Abstract: Social return on investment (SROI) of water sanitation and hygiene projects has not received the attention that projects in other sectors have received primarily because of perceived difficulties in quantifying benefits yet it is an approach that should be mandatory to all projects as it assesses contributions of an investment beyond economic benefits. SROI denotes a methodology that measures return on a project or investment based on experiences or appreciations of stakeholders and the people affected by a particular investment or project. This paper is an expose of benefits created by liquid and solid waste project in Temeke Municipal council of Tanzania. The project “building entrepreneurship capacity for liquid and solid waste businesses’ is primarily focusing on building entrepreneurship skills for liquid and solid waste businesses using a soft loan facility. Core initiatives include but not exclusively limited to constructing a decentralized waste treatment (DEWAT) facility, supporting small scale entrepreneurs (SSE) in the development of market strategy and creating awareness on liquid and solid waste management. 

Keywords: Social Return on Investment, Solid Waste, entrepreneurship, Slums, Sanitation, Hygiene, Tanzania

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Study of Environmental Sustainability and Green Manufacturing Practices in the IndianAutomobile Industry Sharang Karurkar a , Seema Unnikrishnan b,  Swapna Sonali Panda c
a Manufacturing Management Program, National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai, India.
b Environmental Engineering and Management Program, 
National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai, India.
c National Institute of Industrial Engineering,  Mumbai, India.

Volume 11, Issue 06, Pg. 49-62, 2018.

Abstract: Automobile manufacturing firms across the world are making use of optimised, sustainable and environmentally friendly processes and technologies to manufacture vehicles and reduce impact on Humans and the Environment. The focus of this paper is to study the sustainability trends in Indian automobile manufacturing industry and to study the importance given to   various green practices such as recycling, green marketing, green logistics etc. in Indian automobile industry.

To gain insights into the industry perspective, a questionnaire was designed and floated through an online survey to various executives of the automobile industry in India.The survey is designed for both original equipment Manufacturers [OEM’s] and two and three tier automobile component manufacturers and vendors/suppliers in India.  The questionnaire focused on the following factors in the automobile industry: Green Product Design, Green Technology Implementation, Green Procurement, Green Logistics, Lean Management, Waste Management, Eco-labelling and Green Marketing etc. The second part of the questionnaire looked at the importance given to adverse safety and environmental impacts. The third part looked at the importance given to various competitive environmental policies by the companies. 41 executives from the automobile industry participated in the survey. They were requested to rank the competitive environmental policies of their organization on various factors like Cost, Flexibility, Quality and Reliability, Innovation, Delivery, Morale, Customer Relations and Productivity. After getting the responses, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the priorities. 

The results of the study show that the automobile industry of India considers Green Logistics and green power as the highest prioritized criteria and Green Procurement has been given the least importance. Considering the impacts of the existing processes, adverse safety impacts are given a higher importance than adverse environmental impacts. In the parameters for competitive environmental policies, Innovation has been ranked the highest by the participants followed by morale, flexibility and productivity. The results show that automobile companies focus on innovation for competitiveness.  The challenges faced by companies in switching to greener technologies and greener manufacturing processes, were the high cost compared to conventional methods and the low returns and less dedication from the top management of the companies. The other main challenge faced by companies in moving to greener production is the energy production. It is very difficult to generate the required amount of energy by greener or renewable means. The findings of this study will be helpful for firms across the Globe working or aspiring to work on sustainability and green manufacturing in the automobile industry.

Keywords: Automobile Industry; Green Manufacturing; Green SupplyChain,Sustainability; Environmental Management 

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Artificial Intelligence for sustainable and effective justice delivery in India
Parth Jain
Department of Laws, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Volume 11, Issue 06, Pg. 63-70, 2018.

Abstract: The constant increase in the number of pending cases in Indian courts has been a cause of concern for the legislative, executive and the judicial wings of the country and to overcome this problem, various steps are being taken like pressing for Alternative Dispute Resolution (or ADR) mechanisms and scrapping of redundant laws but applying the new found field of Artificial Intelligence to cope up with this conundrum is an area that is still unexplored. India, being the largest democracy in the world with a population of more than 125 crores (1.25 billion), faces the problem of shortage of resources in almost every sector and Indian judiciary is no different. With the problem of shortage of judges and ever increasing rate of institution of cases, the net result is that a civil or a criminal trial takes years to get decided as compared to time taken by developed countries where trial is a matter of a few days. The net result, then, is delayed and ineffective justice delivery which is not very useful for any society. It is, therefore, necessary to think of out of the box solutions, in addition to the conventional ones, to restore the effectiveness and efficiency of the justice delivery system and make the same sustainable. One such solution is putting Artificial Intelligence to use in disposing judicial matters. Since courts in India are already undergoing a transformational change by going digital, the emerging domain of science called ‘Artificial Intelligence’ or ‘AI’ may help in surprising ways to ensure sustainable justice delivery and reduce the backlog of pending cases. Judiciary in some parts of developed countries like U.S.A and Canada has already deployed AI systems to assist the judges on taking a call on matters like granting of bail and release of offenders on parole. Likewise, in India too, court tasks can be identified which can be expedited through the use of intelligent machines. These tasks may range from routine matters such as service of processes to complex ones like evaluation of evidence. This will not only save judicial time of the courts leading to better utilization of public money but may also help in reducing the impact personal biases of the judge in decision making. Of course, trained machines, howsoever intelligent, cannot replace human judges. Nevertheless, these may help the judges in the decision-making process by giving calculated and unbiased opinions and thus ensuring that in the process of handling large number of cases, justice does not become a casualty. In this doctrinal research, the researcher has referred to both primary and secondary sources of data. As Artificial Intelligence has already proved its worth in different fields such as medicine by assisting doctors in conducting surgeries, transportation in the shape of self-driving cars, marketing by tracking consumer buying patterns, etc., it will definitely be a blessing to ensure sustainable and speedy justice delivery system. Therefore, use of Artificial Intelligence in decision making in courts is a viable solution for bringing down the pendency of cases not only in India but also in other jurisdictions and ensuring speedy and sustainable justice delivery systems across the world.

Keywords: AI, Artificial Intelligence, Courts, Justice, Sustainability

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