Volume 11 Issue 01

OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development
Open access peer-reviewed journal 

Dimensions of women Autonomy in Household Decision making in Rural Punjab
Randeep Kaur a, Baldeep Singh b , Lavleen Kaur Sandhu c ,  Gian Kaur d
a,b,c Khalsa college, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
d Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.

Volume 11, Issue 01, Pg. 11-43, 2018.

Abstract: All round prosperity ushered in the state of Punjab (India) in mid sixties as a result of technological changes in the form of green revolution in the agricultural sector. The question that needs to be looked into is whether changes in technological and economic development in the state had positive effect on women’s status, welfare and empowerment. Statistics indicate that high gender disparities still persist in the state. The low sex ratios at birth (893 females to 1000 males) and in 0-6 age group (847 females to 1000 males) in the state are much less than the National average of 943 and 914 respectively as per 2011 census. There has been decline in Female Work Participation Rate (FWPR) in Punjab by 5.2% in 2011 from previous census of 2001. FWPR in Punjab was 13.9% in2011 as compared to 25.5% at the National level and 55.2% for male work participation in the state. The success of green revolution has pushed women who were important contributors back into household domai. To determine relative independent factors in determining women’s autonomy in household decision making, the analysis has been carried out with the  objectives to examine the socio-economic indicators contributing to women’s autonomy and to  study the status of women in  rural Punjab.This study has been carried out in all the three differentiated soil zones of the state of Punjab representing the whole Punjab. These were South-Western Punjab,Central Punjab and eastern Punjab. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used to select districts, blocks, villages and households from three soil zones of Punjab.Three districts were randomly selected from three soil zones and from these three districts two blocks from each each district was randomly selected.Thus in all 12 villages were selected from selected blocks. The list of cultivator households was set in ascending order of their operational area, cumulative frequency was obtained and distribution transformed to arrive at three different groups of farm sizes (small, medium and large farms). Women respondents (married) from these farm size groups and landless households were enlisted. The household sample included 25 randomly selected households per village making a total sample of 300 from three sample districts. These sample households were selected based on their proportion to the total number of households. Primary and secondary data were collected to achieve the objectives of the study. The secondary data were collected from Human Development Report (2013) of UNDP, Statistical Abstract of Punjab (2012), Economic survey of India and Punjab (2012-13), Census reports and various reports of the centre and state government.

For collection of the primary data, comprehensive survey of sample districts of Punjab was conducted for the year 2014. An especially prepared schedule was used to collect information for the various aspects like demographic profile of the respondents: household size, sex composition of children, age, education, husband’s education, number of children, type of family, marital status, marital duration, caste etc. and participation in household decision making by the respondents on various social and economic matters.  For analyses of the sample data, different research methods were used. 

For examining socio-economic profile of the sample respondents a simple tabulation technique was used to work out simple averages, ratios and percentages Multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to identify the factors determining women’s status in household decision making in socio-economic matters.  Backward Step wise Multivariate Logistic Regression was estimated to identify key factors in determining women’s status in household socio-economic decision making.The study revealed that  that decisions taken independently by the women are maximum among small farms and lowest for large farms. Decisions taken by husband and others are maximum for large farms and minimum for small farm categories. Women are involved little in making major economic decisions. District wise, it has been observed that respondents of Hoshiarpur are the most assertive in independent decisions followed by those in Amritsar and Bathinda are the least. This may be due to higher percentage of literacy in Hoshiarpur district and also due to the fact that some of the spouses of respondents are foreign based and sending money to their wives on regular basis for sustenance. In the absence of their spouses, women are free to assert their say in economic and social matters To conclude it can be inferred from the results of the logit analysis that age of the respondent, family structure, her control over household income, her personal or earned income and savings appear to influence almost all the aspects of women’s autonomy in household decision making. Growing age, nuclear family and full or partial control over income by the respondents contribute positively and very significantly to her status. Respondent’s income, savings, highest level of education (Coll/Univ) and her work status also affect decision outcomes and are explanatory factors partially contributing to her status.

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Difficulties of Public Sector Structure as Main Obstacle for Economic Progress in Iran
Yadollah Dadgar a, Rohollah Nazari b
 a Economic Department, Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
a Visiting professor at Carleton university, Canada.
b Department of Economics, Ferdowsi University, Iran. 

Volume 11, Issue 01, Pg. 41-68, 2018.

Abstract: Iran is a big and rich country, and it is located in a strategic, geopolitical and sensitive region, that is Middle East. Due to some obvious reasons, Iran could be enumerated as a less developed country. A key dilemma in Iranian underdevelopment is the huge gap between its economic and social potentialities at one hand, and its actual performance at the other. The main factor behind the gap in question is, we think, is the current structure of Iranian public sector at one hand, and the bad governance of its public administration at the other. Iran obtains about 16% of worldly proven gas resources and 14% of world proven oil resources. The share of Iranian economy from global GDP is, however, less than 1%. Iran does have a remarkable share of human capital and its economy is capable to have 8% annual economic growth. Its average GDP and annual growth has, however, been less than 3% during 4 previous decades. Touristic attractiveness, high adjustability of its people with respect to changing circumstances, strategic geopolitical position, and so on, can be accounted as other Iranian opportunities for economic development. There is, however, a vast gap between the actual performance of Iranian economy and its potentialities. Very low productivity, vulnerability of about 37% of population, high Gini coefficient, reliance of public sector expenditures on oil revenue and thus suffering from a rentier state can be mentioned as some typical difficulties in this country. One can add to the above list, ineffective government in combating with corruption, less developed private sector, inefficient taxing system, and relatively closed economy. Elements in question can partly justify and explain the roots of some key causes of underdevelopment in Iran. Non-accountability of the main political powers, very low social capital, and some similar factors work behind current Iranian public sector as well. By relying on data of Iranian central bank, parliament research center, World Bank and OECD data sources for 1980-2017 period, and by maintaining on theories of public sector economics this research is investigating some kind of missing chain for economic progress in Iran. Moreover, it is comparing Iranian public sector with standard public sector structure at one hand and actual performance of public sector of some selected countries at the other. Key finding of this research is that deficiency of current structure of Iranian public sector and its actual performance are bottlenecks for economic development. According to results of this work, doing any influential effort to exit from such bottlenecks, requires improving public administration and operating some change regarding Iranian public sector structure. Reforming the constitutional law, benefiting from post “joint comprehensive plan of action, JCPA,” and obeying international rules of the games could be mentioned as typical spade works in this connection.

Keywords: Public Sector Structure, Iranian Economy, Residual factors for Economic Progress, 

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Water and Environmental Sustainability Education Linked with Ecotourism in Langkawi Geopark, Malaysia: 
Initiative towards Sustainable Development 
a Rahmah Elfithri, a Mazlin Bin Mokhtar, b Md Pauzi Abdullah, c Mohd Ekhwan Toriman, 
d Ruhizan Mohammad Yasin, a Ahmad Aldrie Amir, a Tanot Unjah, a Sharina Abdul Halim, 
a Nik Mohd Noor Faizul Md Saad, a Siti Amirah Ishak,   a Nurlina Mohamad Ramzan 
a Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
b Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
c Faculty of Social Science and Humanitiesd, 
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  d Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Volume 11, Issue 01, Pg. 65-73, 2018.

Abstract: Project on Water and Environmental Sustainability Education linked with Ecotourism in Langkawi Geopark, Malaysia is an initiative carried out by LESTARI, UKM under the UNESCO framework of “Science Harnessed for ASEAN Regional Policy (SHARP)” with Malaysian Fund In Trust (MFIT) financial assistance. Sustainability science as a new emerging field can be a tool to solve a complex environmental anthropogenic issue by promoting an integrated approach of various disciplines, multi scale and across stakeholder. It is a problem driven and solution oriented approach in creating a sustainable society requires the problem solving skills. Thus the establishment of sustainability science demo site in Langkawi Geopark involved integration of the sustainability science concepts into natural resource management frameworks and processes for supporting opportunities for more sustainable and resilient future. This initiative is linked with Education, Ecotourism, Geopark and Local Stakeholders and focused on applying sustainability science principles to strengthen policy, legal and institutional frameworks through collaborative linkages, learning alliances and targeted interventions for capacity building in Langkawi Geopark.  The objective of this initiative is to develop the whole Langkawi Geopark as a demonstration site on water and environmental sustainability education linked with ecotourism in Langkawi Geopark, where the functions of stakeholders, ecotourism and ecohydrology is integrated. It is an appropriate initiative because the components of water resources and environment are distributed throughout the Langkawi Geopark and the resources in this island have access and impact on local community. Thus, this approach is suitable in promoting sustainability science as a platform to responds to the future needs in dealing with water and environmental sustainability related issues in Langkawi. Local stakeholders workshop and interview sessions has been conducted with some local government agencies, local authorities, private entities, NGOs and local community. Field data collection and survey on water and environmental quality state condition in Langkawi were also conducted through water sampling and questionnaires distribution to local stakeholders and community in Langkawi. A five (5) ways feasibility framework has been developed and applied in order to demonstrate the sustainability science approach in Langkawi Geopark through multi stakeholders participatory process conducted during the study. The establishment of sustainability science demonstration site in Langkawi managed to illustrate the sustainability science based solutions to solve related issues on water and environmental sustainability in Langkawi Geopark and identified how environmental sustainability best practices can support sustainable development policies at local, national and regional levels

Keywords: Sustainability Science, Demonstration Site, water, environmental, education, ecotourism, Langkawi Geopark, sustainable development.

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Factors Influencing Communal Livestock Farmers’ Participation into the National Red Meat Development Programme (NRMDP) in South Africa: The Case of the Eastern Cape Province
K. Sotsha a, B. Fakudze b, T. Khoza c, V. Mmbengwa d, S. Ngqangweni e, M.H. Lubinga f, 
N. Mazibuko g, T. Ntshangase h, B. Nyhodo i, L. Myeki j and X. Ngetu k
a,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,k  National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC), Private Bag X935, 
Pretoria, 0001, Republic of South Africa.
b  Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Private Bag X41, Pretoria, 0001, 
Republic of South Africa.
j Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, GPO Box 1571, 
Canberra ACT, 2601, Australia

Volume 11, Issue 01, Pg. 73-81, 2018.

Abstract: In 2005, ComMark embarked on the Eastern Cape Red Meat Development Programme (ECRMDP) as an initiative to increase formal market participation of communal farmers. With the end of support from ComMark in 2008, the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) took over. With funding from the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform (DRDLR) and partnerships with the provincial departments and the municipalities, the programme has expanded effectively within the Eastern Cape Province and it has been rolled out to other provinces as well, hence it is now known as the National Red Meat Development Programme (NRMDP). The initiative emanated from the observation that the local demand for beef outstrips production, hence resulting into importation of more beef. This was against the background that there was untapped potential in the communal farming areas where 40% of beef production takes place in South Africa, of which 3.3 million heads of cattle is found in the Eastern Cape alone.

Although the programme has so far had a significant contribution towards communal farmers’ participation in formal markets as well as their understanding of the value of formal market participation, empirical evidence to support this notion is still desirable. Hence this case study was conducted to determine the factors that influence farmers’ participation in the programme, focusing on the Eastern Cape Province. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors influencing farmers’ participation in the programme, and the results indicated that distance to markets, stock size, days of fattening and the contribution of the programme (income earned from livestock sales through the programme) significantly influence farmers’ participation. This is an indication that farmers are slowly beginning to understand how they can best make use of the opportunity presented by the programme. Hence policy wise, it is commendable to encourage communal livestock farmers to participate in the programme. 

Keywords: Communal live stock, agricultural land, red meat development,  regression model

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